The mandate of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada is to advise the Government of Canada, through the Minister of the Environment, on the commemoration of nationally significant aspects of Canada's history.
Born in Morpeth, Upper Canada, Lampman spent most of his short adult life unhappily working as a clerk in the Post Office Department in Ottawa, for poetry was his true vocation. One of the "sixties group" which wrote Canada's first noteworthy English verse, his work shows the influence of English writers, particularly Keats and Arnold, and of American nineteenth-century literature. Author of many poems describing Ottawa's rural environs, he complemented his interest in Nature by commenting poetically on the dehumanizing effects of a mechanized capitalist society. He died at Ottawa.
The Bank of
Upper Canada Building Chartered in 1821, the Bank of Upper Canada was, until its demise in 1866, one of British North America's leading banks. It played a significant role in the development of Upper Canada - supplying currency, protecting savings and making loans - and aided Toronto's rise as the commercial centre of the colony. This building, opened in 1827, was the second home of the bank. Its design reflects the image of conservative opulence favoured by financial institutions of the time. The portico, designed by John G. Howard, a leading architect of the period, was added about 1844.
north-east corner of Adelaide Street East and George Street, Toronto, ON, Canada
Bernard Keble Sandwell (1876-1954) journalist, essayist, lecturer and academic, B.K. Sandwell is best remembered as the influential editor (1932-1951) of Saturday Night, which he made the voice of English Canadian liberalism. B.K. was a prolific writer, whose ambition was to achieve clear thinking on human problems and who was read widely for his great wit, shrewdness and grace of expression. His views on a wide range of subjects guided the options of an exclusive but important audience. In his ardent defence of civil liberties, he was ahead of his generation.
Graphic Arts Building, 73 Richmond Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada
Charles William Jefferys 1869-1951 Writer, artist, and illustrator of historical novels and textbooks, Charles Jefferys emigrated to Canada from England in 1879. After studying at the Toronto Art Students League, he joined the New York Herald as an illustrator in 1892, but returned to Canada in 1900 to work as a freelance artist for the Globe and the Daily Star. From 1911 to 1939 he taught drawing and painting at the University of Toronto. He painted landscapes and historical subjects across Canada, but is best known for his carefully researched drawings, such as those in his three volume Picture Gallery of Canadian History.
Canada's First Electric Telegraph 19 December 1846 marked the inauguration of the telegraph in Canada. This major development in communications was pioneered by the Toronto, Hamilton and Niagara Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Company whose line then being built between Toronto and Queenston carried the first message, from the mayor of Toronto to his Hamilton counterpart. To most Canadians the early telegraph was an expensive novelty but both the press and business soon adapted it to their use. In 1852 the successful but limited Toronto, Hamilton and Niagara enterprise was bought by the larger Montreal Telegraph Company.
corner of Front and Jarvis Streets, Toronto, ON, Canada
Annesley Hall Inspired by English cottages, this woman's residence is a fine example of Queen Anne Revival architecture in Canada. A welcoming, home-like setting is conveyed through the harmony of an irregular massed composition, many bay window and dormers. This domestic grandeur was believed proper for young women students in the early 20th century. Designed by George M. Miller and completed in 1903, this early women's residence at Victoria College in the University of Toronto eloquently marks the achievement of women's access to higher education.
Birkbeck Building In its rich Edwardian Baroque details, classical composition, steel frame and fireproofed surfaces, the Birkbeck Building represents a transitional period of urban commercial design which combined historical style with modern technology. Built in 1908 for the Canadian Birkbeck Investment and Savings Company, this four-storey office building is typical of many small financial institutions prevalent in central business districts of Canadian cities before World War I. Designed by George W. Gouinlock, the Birkbeck Building was restored by the Ontario Heritage Trust in 1987.
Chapel of St. James-The-Less In its vigorous, harmonious composition, this small funeral chapel is a splendid example of High Victorian Gothic design. Its sense of strength and spirituality is derived from the subtle contrast of its stone walls, enveloping roofs, and soaring spire. The chapel was erected in 1860 to plans by Cumberland and Storm, one of Toronto's leading 19th-century architectural firms. Situated on a slight rise, St. James is enhanced by the picturesque setting of its cemetery, which was opened in 1844 and is the oldest established cemetery in the city.
Chapel of St. James-The-Less, Parliament Street, Toronto, ON, Canada
Charles William Jefferys
1869-1951 Writer, artist, and illustrator of historical novels and textbooks, Charles Jefferys emigrated to Canada from England in 1879. After studying at the Toronto Art Students League, he joined the New York Herald as an illustrator in 1892, but returned to Canada in 1900 to work as a freelance artist for the Globe and the Daily Star. From 1911 to 1939 he taught drawing and painting at the University of Toronto. He painted landscapes and historical subjects across Canada, but is best known for his carefully researched drawings, such as those in his three volume Picture Gallery of Canadian History.
Medical Sciences Building, 1 King's College Circle, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Administration Building This building is one of the few surviving air terminal buildings dating from the formative years of scheduled air passenger travel. It was constructed in 1938-39 by the Toronto Harbour Commissioners to service the new Port George VI Airport, now known as the Toronto Island Airport. Geared to efficiency, it centralized passenger, baggage, and air traffic control services in a structure which was placed close to and in full view of the runway. Its horizontal massing, central projecting control tower and attractively landscaped setting are typical of air terminal buildings before the advent of jet aircraft.
Coulée Grou Coulée Grou Le 2 juillet 1690, le lieutenant réformé de Colombet à la tête de vingt-cinq hommes, attaqua un parti d'une centaine d'Iroquois, près de ce lieu. Il y fut tué avec neuf de ses hommes, dont le sieur Montenon de Larue et le chirurgien Jalot. Le concessionnaire de cette terre, Jean Grou, tige de la famille canadienne de ce nom, et trois de ses compagnons emmenés en captivité, furent brûlés vifs en pays iroquois.
On July 2, 1690, Lieutenant de Colombet, leading twenty-five men, attached a party of about one hundred Iroquois near this place. He and nine others were killed including the Sieur Montenon de Larue and the surgeon Jalot. The owner of this land, Jean Grou, ancestor of the Canadian family of that name, and three of his companions were captured, and burned alive by the Iroquois.
La maison Le Ber-Le Moyne Construies entre 1669 et 1671, la maison Le Ber-Le Moyne et sa dépendance comptent encore aujord'hui parmi les plus vieux édifices associés au commerce des fourrures au Canada. Jacques Le Ber et Charles Le Moyne, deux riches marchands de fourrures montréalais, ont établie ce poste de traite à un carrefour mercantile déjà fréquenté parles Autochtones. Par ses dimensions réduites, sa disposition asymétrique et l'harmonie qu'elle dégage, le maison Le Ber-Le Moyne demeure toujours un bel exemple d'architecture domestique rurale de la Nouvelle-France. Le Ber-Le Moyne House Constructed between 1669 and 1671, the Le Ber-Le Moyne house and its out-building are among the oldest remaining structures linked to Canada's fur trade. Jacques Le Ber and Charles Le Moyne, two wealthy fur traders living in Montreal, established this trading post at a commercial gathering place already frequented by Aboriginal people. With its small scale, asymmetrical façade and sense of harmony, the Le Ber-Le Moyne house remains a fine example of the rural domestic architecture of New France.
Aux origines de Montréal The origins of Montréal C'est ici que le sieur de Maisonneuve fonda Montréal en mai 1642. Situé au confluent du Saint-Laurent et de l'ancienne petite rivière Saint-Pierre, l'endroit était bien connu des Autochtones qui s'y rassemblaient depuis des siècles, de mème que sur le site de l'actuelle place Royale. Dès leur arrivée, les Français construisirent le fort Ville-Marie. Vers 1688, le gouverneur de Montréal, Louis-Hector de Callière, obtint une partie du terrain et y érigea sa résidence, d'où le nom de pointe à Callière. Ce lieu qui vit naître Montréal fut aussi témoin de sa transformation en l'une des grandes métropoles du Canada. Here, in May of 1642, sieur de Maisonneuve founded Montréal. Located at the junction of the St. Lawrence River and the now-disappeared Petite rivière Saint-Pierre, this are was well known to Native peoples who for centuries met here and on the present site of Place Royale. The French built Fort Ville-Marie upon their arrival. Around 1688, Montréal's governor, Louis-Hector de Callière, acquired a portion of the are and built his residence, hence the name Pointe à Callière. This site which gave birth to Montréal also witnessed its transformation into one of Canada's great metropolitan centres.
Les Rapides de Lachine The Lachine Rapids Cette barrière naturelle, sue la voie de pénétration du continent, s'avéra décisive dans l'etablissement de Montréal comme centre d'échange, de production et de distribution. Ici, les eaux du fleuve s'engouffrent dans un étroit goulot encombré d'ilots et de rochers qui a longtemps fait obstacle au transport maritime vers l'Ouest. Les gens et les marchandises devaient voyager par terre entre Montréal at Lachine; en sens inverse, on se risquait à sauter les rapides. Ce n'est qu'avec l'ouverture du canal Lachine en 1825 que l'intérieur du continent fut relié à l'Est par une voie navigable.
This natural obstacle on the main route into the continent played a decisive role in the establishment and the development on Montréal as a major centre of trade, production and distribution. Here the river rushes through a narrow channel strewn with boulders and small islets. For travellers going inland, the rapids were a major impediment to transportation on the St. Lawrence. Both travellers and goods had to pass overland from Montréal to Lachine; descending the river, they could risk shooting the rapids. It was not until the opening of the Lachine Canal in 1825 that a navigable route to the interior was developed.
L'ancien Édifice de la Douane The Old Custom House Construite entre 1836 et 1838, l'ancienne douane est l'œuvre de John Ostell, l'un des plus importants architectes de ces années à Montréal. L'édifice de style palladien se distingue par son élégante façade ornée de pilastres et d'un large fronton. Situé face au fleuve, sur las vieille place du Marché, il soulignait l'essor commercial de Montréal et le nouveau rôle de la métropole. Le bâtiment abrita le service des douanes jusqu'en 1871 et conserve son harmonieuse apparence d'origine après d'importants travaux d'agrandissement en 1881-1882. Erected between 1839 and 1838, this striking Palladian-style custom house is the work of John Ostell, one of the most important Montréal architects of the period. The building is distinguished by an elegant facade embellished with pilasters and a wide pediment. Strategically sited on the former marketplace and facing the river, it signalled the rise of Montréal as a commercial centre and the city's new role as a metropolis. The building house the customs service until 1871, and has maintained its harmonious appearance despite extensive enlargements in 1881-1882.
Former Montréal Custom House, 150 Saint Paul Street West, Montreal, QC, Canada
Kondiaronk et Callière Kondiaronk and Callière Kondiaronk, grand chef des Wyandots de Michillimakinac, joua un rôle capital dans les négociations de la Grande Paix grâce à son ascendant sur les chefs amérindiens et au respect que lui vouaient les Français. Son discours du 1 août 1701 fut un point déterminant dans la conclusion de la paix. Fin stratège militaire, Louis-Hector de Callière, gouveneur de Montréal, se fit valoir dans la défense de la ville. A ce titre, puis comme gouveneur général de la Nouvelle-France, il démontra des qualités diplomatiques exceptionnelles lors des pourparlers avec les Premièrs nations, lesquels menèrent à la signature de la Grande Paix. Kondiaronk, Grand Chief of the Wyandots of Michilimakinac, played a determining role in the negotiations of the Great Peace due to both his influence with the other First Nations chiefs and the respect that he had among the French. His speech of August 1, 1701 was a decisive factor in sealing the peace. Louis-Hector de Callière, an able military strategist and governor of Montréal, distinguished himself in the defence of the city. In that office and later as governor general of New France, he displayed outstanding diplomatic skills in the negotiations with the First Nations which led to the signing of the treaty.
La Grande Paix de Montréal
The Great Peace of Montréal
Le 4 août 1701, le gouverneur de la Nouvelle-France, les délégués d'une trentaine de nations amérindiennes alliées aux Français et ceux des nations iroquoises signèrent la Grande Paix de Montréal qui mit fin à près d'un siècle de conflits. Le traité instaura la paix générale de l'Acadie aux confins du lac Supérieur, des sources de l'Outaouais au confluent du Missouri et du Mississipi. Il garantit aux Amérindiens le libre accès à de vastes territoires de chasse et assura de nouveaux marchés pour la traite des fourrures. Ce traité marqua les relations entre les Premières nations jusqu'au XIXe siècle.
On August 4, 1701, the governor of New France and representatives from the Iroquois nations, as well as from more than 30 other First Nations who were allied with the French, signed the Great Peace of Montréal. The treaty put an end to nearly a century of conflict and brought a general peace from Acadia to Lake Superior and from the headwaters of the Ottawa River to the confluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi. It ensured free access to vast hunting grounds and opened new fur-trading markets. The Great Peace shaped relations among these First Nations until the 19th century.
Sutherland Forest Nursery Station La Pépinière de Sutherland The Sutherland Forest Nursery Station, like the earlier nursery at Indian head, made an important contribution to tree-planting on the Prairies. Established by the federal Forestry Branch in 1913, it was created to promote shelterbelts and European ideals of farm beautification. Until 1966, hardy shrub and tree varieties were tested and developed here, and millions of seedlings were distributed to farmers. The forestry stations also demonstrated horticultural techniques, as evident in the abundant examples of surviving experimental plots, shelterbelts and ornamental plantings at Sutherland. La Pépinière de Sutherland, tout comme celle d'Indian Head, établie auparavant, contribua largement au boisement des Prairies. Aménagée par la Direction fédérale des forêts en 1913, elle visait à promouvoir les brise-vent et les idéaux européens d'embellissement des fermes. Jusqu'en 1966, on y éprouva et développa des arbustes vivaces et des essences forestières et on distribua des millions de jeunes plants aux agriculteurs. Les pépinières servirent aussi à l'expérimentation de techniques horticoles, comme en témoignent les parcells expérimentales, brise-vent et plantations d'ornement encore nombreux à Sutherland.
Marshall McLuhan (1911 - 1980) a pioneer of media studies, this University of Toronto Professor became famous in the 1960s for his provocative theories about the impact of print and electronic media on human perception and behaviour. Teaching literary criticism led him to the idea that meaning was shaped by the technology of communication. His innovative work probed the influence of the printed word on society, the effects of combining print and images in advertising, and the world-wide impact of radio and television. The concepts of the "global village" and "the medium is the message" made McLuhan one of the most celebrated scholars in the Western world.
St. Michael’s College, University of Toronto, 6 St. Joseph Street, Toronto, ON, Canada
Le Maison Banting
Here, in the early morning hours of October 31, 1920, Dr. Frederick Banting conceived an idea for research that led to the discovery of insulin. He believed that diabetes, then a fatal disease, could be treated by a substance extracted from a dog's atrophied pancreas. Banting was the pivotal member of the Toronto team that isolated and refined this extract, now known as insulin. In January 1922, insulin showed spectacular test results and became a lifesaving therapy worldwide. Banting House, known as the "Birthplace of Insulin", reminds us of the most important Canadian medical discovery of the 20th century.
C'est dans la maison Banting que se produisit la plus grande découverte médicale du XXe siècle au Canada. À l'aurore du 31 octobre 1920, Frederick Banting eut l'intuition du processus qui allait mener à la découverte de l'insuline: à savoir que l'on pourrait soigner le diabète, maladie jusque-là fatale, grâce à une substance extraite due pancréas atrophié d'un chien. Il fut le principal artisan de l'équipe de Toronto qui a isolé et raffiné l'insuline. Après des tests fructueux en janvier 1922, la production de l'insuline permit aux diebètiques du monde entier de bénéficier d'une thérapie salutaire.