Armadale Free Methodist Church 1880 One of the earliest Free Methodist societies in Canada was established in this area at nearby Ellesmere in 1874. The first services were held in a "Meeting House" provided by Robert Loveless, a former Primitive Methodist, who was largely responsible for the organization of this congregation. Within six years another congregation had been established here at Armadale with initial services being held in the home of Silas Phoenix. The growth of the congregation led to the construction of this simple frame church in 1880. Built chiefly by volunteer labour on land acquired from Francis Underwood, this building, the oldest continuing Free Methodist place of worship in Canada, henceforth served the combined Ellsemere-Armadale congregation and stands as a tribute to the efforts of the early Free Methodists.

400 Passmore Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada

The Battle of York 1813 Loyal residents of York (Toronto) were encouraged by early British victories in the War of 1812, but in 1813, they experienced first-hand the hardships of war. On the morning of April 27th, an American fleet appeared offshore and began to send 1,700 soldiers ashore two kilometres west of here. At first only a small force of Ojibwa warriors was in position to resist the landing. After fierce skirmishing the invaders advanced, overcoming defensive stands by outnumbered British and Canadian troops. As they closed in on the main garrison near here, the retreating British ignited a gunpowder storehouse. It exploded, killing 38 Americans and wounding 222 more. Victorious nonetheless, the Americans occupied York for six days. They looted and set buildings ablaze, including the Parliament Buildings.

East end of Fort York parking lot, Toronto, ON, Canada

The Bay Queen Street Store Department stores revolutionized shopping in the late nineteenth century by offering selection, low prices and money-back guarantees. In 1895, Robert Simpson commissioned architect Edmund Burke to design his new department store at the southwest corner of Yonge and Queen Streets. It was the first building in Canada with a load-bearing metal frame and a façade clearly patterned on this internal structure. By 1969, Simpson's department store had been enlarged six times and occupied two city blocks between Yonge, Queen, Bay and Richmond Streets. Canada's oldest corporation and largest department store retailer, Hudson's Bay Company, acquired the building in 1978. A Bay store since 1991, it remains one of Canada's great shopping landmarks.

Queen and Yonge Streets, Toronto, ON, Canada

Archives of Ontario In 1903, responding to public demands for an historical records repository, the Ontario government established a provincial archives under Alexander Fraser, a Toronto editor and historian. As first Archivist of Ontario, he initiated an ambitious acquisition programme and began the publication of important documents in a valuable series of annual reports. The Archives Act of 1923 directed the transfer of inactive government records to the Archives and by 1934 it had developed as a major centre for the preservation and public use of documents, maps and photographs related to Ontario. Following the Second World War and the introduction of a comprehensive government records management programme, the Archives of Ontario became one of Canada's foremost archival institutions.

134 Ian Macdonald Boulevard, York University campus, Toronto, ON, Canada

The Ashbridge Estate This property was home to one family for two centuries. Sarah Ashbridge and her family moved here from Pennsylvania and began clearing land in 1794. Two years later they were granted 243 ha between Ashbridge's Bay and present day Danforth Avenue. The Ashbridges prospered as farmers until Toronto suburbs began surrounding their land in the 1880s. They sold all but this part of their original farm by the 1920s. Donated to the Ontario Heritage Trust in 1972, it was the family estate until 1997. As they changed from pioneers to farmers to professionals over 200 years on this property, the Ashbridges personified Ontario's development from agricultural frontier to urban industrial society.

1444 Queen Street East, Toronto, ON, Canada

Canada's First Air Mail At 10:12 a.m. on June 24, 1918, Captain Brian Peck of the Royal Air Force and mechanic Corporal C.W. Mathers took off from the Bois Franc Polo Grounds in Montreal in a JN-4 Curtiss two-seater airplane. They had with them the first bag of mail to be delivered by air in Canada. Wind and rain buffetted the small plane and forced it to make refuelling stops at Kingston and Deseronto. Finally, at 4:55 p.m., Peck and Mathers landed at the Leaside Aerodrome (immediately southwest of here). The flight had been arranged by a civilian organization, the Aerial League of the British Empire, to demonstrate that aviation was the way of the future.

corner of Brentcliffe Road and Broadway Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada

Canadian International Air Show Human fascination with flight has made air shows popular since the early days of aviation. Toronto was the site of numerous air shows as it developed into a centre of air transportation and aircraft manufacturing in the early twentieth century. The Canadian International Air Show originated in 1946 when the National Aeronautical Association of Canada attracted overflow crowds to a show at De Havilland Airport in Downsview. Staged annually thereafter, the air show moved to Exhibition Place in 1949 and became a regular feature of the Canadian National Exhibition in 1956. Here it developed into a world class exhibition featuring diverse types of aircraft, precision and stunt flying, and aeronautical technology.

Lake Shore Blvd. West, Toronto, ON, Canada

Canadian National Exhibition The second half of the 19th century was an era in which technological innovation brought rapid economic progress and social change. The spirit of the age was reflected in an annual fair that first opened on this site on September 5, 1879. Staged by the Industrial Exhibition Association of Toronto, it offered medals and prize money to encourage innovation and improvement in agriculture, manufacturing and the arts. The fair quickly became a popular attraction and a boon to the local economy. A national event since 1912, the CNE continues to showcase Canadian creativity and achievement.

Dufferin Gates, Exhibition grounds, Toronto, ON, Canada

William Thomas 1799 - 1860 One of Canada's most prominent architects. Thomas was born in Suffolk and apprenticed as a carpenter before establishing architectural practice here in Royal Leamington Spa. During the 1830s he designed a series of attractive residences including this grand neo-classical crescent, Lansdowne Circus, Comyn Lodge, Aberdeen House and the Masonic Rooms. In 1843, frustrated by a depression in the building industry, Thomas emigrated to Toronto, Canada. He soon gained widespread recognition as the architect of many outstanding public and ecclesiastical buildings as well as numerous commerical and residential structures. Unrivalled in his mastery of detail, Thomas became the leading exponent in the country of the Decorated Gothic Revival style and designed some of the finest buildings erected in Ontario during the Nineteenth Century.

19-57 Lansdowne Crescent, Leamington Spa, United Kingdom

Rosvall and Voutilainen On November 18, 1929, Finnish-Canadians Viljo Rosvall and Janno Voutilainen left the Port Arthur area for Onion Lake, 20 kilometres upstream, from here, to recruit bushworkers for a strike. Their bodies were found at Onion Lake the following spring. Local unionists and many Finnish-Canadians suspected foul play, but coroner's juries ruled the deaths accidental drownings. The two men's funeral on April 28, 1930, is remembered as the largest ever held in Port Arthur. As thousands of mourners marched to Riverside Cemetery, an eclipse of the sun darkened the sky. The mystery surrounding the deaths of Rosvall and Voutilainen endures, sustaining them in public memory as martyrs to the cause of organized labour.

Logging museum, Centennial Park, Black Bay Road, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada

John Graves Simcoe 1752 – 1806. The first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, present day Ontario, John Graves Simcoe was Born in Cotterstock, Northamptonshire, and attended Exeter Free Grammar School in his early youth. He entered the Army in 1770 and commanded a regiment in the American revolution. During his active administration of Upper Canada, 1791-96, Simcoe laid the foundation for the province’s orderly growth and development. He died in a house on this site and is buried at Wolford Chapel, Dunkerswell, near Honiton. Erected with the assistance of the Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Citizenship and Culture, Ontario and Canada.

on the wall between 12 and 14 Cathedral Close, Exeter, United Kingdom

Beginning in 1869, British charitable societies removed children from slums and orphanages in congested industrial cities and brought them to Canada to serve as cheap farm and domestic labour. "Homes" were set up across the country to house the girls and boys until they were placed in service. Monitoring of the children after placement was superficial, leaving them susceptible to mistreatment. Child emigration was discontinued in the 1930s when the Great Depression created a labour surplus in Canada. By then, up to 100,000 children had been transported. This building, formerly known as St. George's Home, was one of many distribution centres in Ontario.

1153 Wellington Street W, Ottawa, ON, Canada