Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project. Built (1938-1943) and maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Pittsburgh District), the JLFPP reflects the 1930s move toward a major federal role in local flood protection. This concrete-paved channel project, extending 9.2 miles along Johnstown's three rivers, became the nation's second largest flood control of its type. In its first 50 years, the only flooding here in 1977, during the modern flood of record.

Washington St. NW of Johns St., across from Point Park entrance, Johnstown, PA, United States

Loretto. Founded 1799 by the prince-priest Demetrius Gallitzin. Here he began in 1800 the first school in the area, a forerunner of Saint Francis College, chartered in 1858. Catholic cultural center. Charles M. Schwab, steel king, had his home here.

2000 block of Manor Rd. (SR 1005) at St. Francis, Loretto, PA, United States

Loretto. This village, 3.5 miles NW of here, was founded 1799 by Prince Gallitzin as a Catholic colony. The site of the priest-missioner's grave is here. Charles Schwab, steel king, had his home in Loretto, and is buried here.

St. Joseph St. (SR 1005) & Adm. Peary Hwy. (Old US22), Cresson, PA, United States

Malcolm Cowley. Born here in 1898, Cowley became an influential literary critic, editor, poet, and historian after World War I. He chronicles the "Lost Generation" in Exile's Return, his most famous work. Blue Juniata, a book of verse, celebrates this region. He was Chancellor of the American Academy of Arts & Letters, 1966-1976. He died in Sherman, Conn. in 1989.

4216 Benjamin Franklin Hwy. (US 422), 2 miles W of Belsano, near White Mill Hotel, White Mill Crossing, PA, United States

Portage Railroad. Here was No. 5 of the ten inclined planes used to carry canal boats by rail, Hollidaysburg to Johnstown. The road to Lilly follows closely the route of the Portage Railroad over the mountain to Johnstown.

7939 Admiral Peary Hwy. (old US 22) at Portage Rd., Cresson, PA, United States

Bucktails, The. Famed Civil War volunteers departed from this point for Harrisburg, April 1861, where they were mustered into State service. A monument, erected in their honor, is just south of here. This highway and a State park are named for the Bucktails.

Junction 3rd St. / Bucktail Trail Hwy. (PA 120) & Bridge St. (PA 555), Driftwood, PA, United States

Cameron County. Formed March 29, 1860 from Clinton, McKean, Potter and Elk counties. Named for Sen. Simon Cameron. County seat, Emporium, was incorporated 1864. Lumbering was of early importance, and flagstone at Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was later quarried here.

County Courthouse, Pa. 120, Emporium, PA, United States

Tom Mix. The famous cowboy star of cinema and circus was born here, January 6, 1880. A soldier during the Spanish-American War, he won renown for his "wild west" roles in hundreds of motion pictures - both silent and sound - between 1910 and 1935. Tom Mix died in an auto accident in Arizona on October 12, 1940.

At birthplace, Mix Run Rd. across creek from PA 555, Driftwood, PA, United States

Carbon County. Formed March 13, 1843 from Northampton and Monroe counties. Carbon is the basic element of this area's rich deposits of anthracite coal. The county seat, incorporated in 1850 as Mauch Chunk, was renamed in 1954 for Jim Thorpe, Indian athlete.

County Courthouse, Broadway & Susquehanna Sts., Jim Thorpe, PA, United States

Fort Allen. Built in 1756 by the Province of Pennsylvania. One of a series of frontier defenses erected during the French and Indian War. The site was within present Weissport.

U.S. 209 in Franklin Township, Weissport, PA, United States

Fort Allen Well. Only remaining part of Fort Allen, which was built by the Province of Pennsylvania, 1756, under the supervision of Benjamin Franklin. The well, now restored, is located directly behind houses opposite.

Park opposite 112-116 Franklin St., Weissport, PA, United States

Gnadenhuetten. The Moravian mission of this name was built in 1746 to accommodate the growing number of Mohican and Delaware Indian converts. It was the first white settlement in present-day Carbon County. It was burned on November 24, 1755, during a raid by Indians stirred to violence by the French. Victims of the attack are buried in the Lehighton Cemetery near here.

Penn Street in Lehighton, Weissport, PA, United States

Molly Maguire Executions. On June 21, 1877, four "Molly Maguires," an alleged secret society of Irish mine- workers, were hanged here. Pinkerton detective James McParlan's testimony led to convictions for violent crimes against the coal industry, yet the facts of the labor, class, and ethnic conflicts, even the existence of the organization, remain contested. Six others were hanged on this day at the county jail in Pottsville; ten more were executed in Pa. through 1879.

at Old Carbon County Jail, Broadway, Jim Thorpe, PA, United States

Packer Mansion. Standing on the nearby hill is the home of Asa Packer, industrialist, philanthropist, congressman and founder of Lehigh University. The ornate mansion, built in 1860, has been carefully preserved with its original furnishings and is maintained as a memorial.

Susquehanna St. (US 209) at park near railroad station, Jim Thorpe, PA, United States

Philip Ginter. While hunting, Ginter discovered anthracite on Sharp Mountain here in 1791. He showed it to Col. Jacob Weiss, a prominent area settler. In 1792 Weiss and others formed the Lehigh Coal Mine Co., the first Anthracite company and a forerunner of Lehigh Coal & Navigation.

Ludlow Park on E Penn St., Summit Hill, PA, United States

28th Division Shrine. Dedicated to heroic dead of Pennsylvania's famed 28th in two world wars. The Division was created Sept., 1917. Shrine was founded by Col. Theodore Boal and made a State memorial in 1932.

Business U.S. 322 at Pa. Military Museum, Boalsburg, PA, United States

Aaronsburg Story, The. Aaron Levy, a Jewish immigrant who founded this village in 1786, donated ground for Lutheran and Reformed congregations here and presented then with a pewter communion set. In remembrance of his generosity, 30,000 people gathered in Aaronsburg on October 23, 1949, for a day-long celebration of religious and racial understanding. It included a huge outdoor pageant on a natural stage just north of this site.

PA 45, Aaronsburg, PA, United States

Andrew G. Curtin. Governor of Pennsylvania, 1861-67, was born on this site. He brought about the establishment of State Normal Schools; organized the famed Pennsylvania Reserve Corps; obtained funds for the erection of State Orphan Schools.

Allegheny St. at Cherry Lane, Bellefonte, PA, United States

Anna Wagner Keichline. First woman registered as an architect by the state (1920), this Bellefonte native, inventor, Cornell grad & women's suffrage advocate designed numerous buildings, including the Plaza Theatre here. She served as Special Agent, Army intelligence, WWI.

126 West High Street, Bellefonte, PA, United States

Bellefonte. Laid out by James Dunlop and James Harris, 1795. Named by Talleyrand for "beautiful fountain." Early center of the iron industry. One-time home of five of Pennsylvania's governors.

PA 150 at south end of town, near Reynolds Ave., Bellefonte, PA, United States

Bellefonte Air Mail Field. The initial stop on the first scheduled west-bound air mail flight was made here by Pilot Leon D. Smith on December 18, 1918. The site for the field was chosen by pioneer aviator Max Miller and was in regular use for air mail until 1925.

Pa. 550 (E. Bishop St.) at high school, Bellefonte, PA, United States

Centre County. Formed on Feb. 13, 1800 from Huntingdon, Mifflin, Lycoming and Northumberland counties. Named for its location in the State, and home of The Pennsylvania State University. Five governors of Pennsylvania lived in Bellefonte, county seat laid out in 1795.

County Courthouse, Allegheny St. at High St., Bellefonte, PA, United States

Centre Furnace. Here Cols. John Patton and Samuel Miles operated the first charcoal iron furnace in the region, 1792-1809. Present stack used 1825-1858. In this era Centre County led in the making of Juniata iron.

Porter Road, 150 feet north of East College Avenue (Pa. 26), State College, PA, United States

Centre Furnace - PLAQUE. This stack is part of the plant of the Centre Iron Company which was erected in 1792 by Col. John Patton and Colonel Samuel Miles, officers in the War of the American Revolution. The product of this furnace was the first iron melted in Centre County and ...

Centre Furnace Mansion, 1001 E. College Ave. (PA 26), State College, PA, United States

John I. Thompson Grain Elevator and Coal Sheds. Erected in 1885 for his son John by Lemont founder Moses Thompson, this complex was a hub of trade for Centre County. Grain was exported and coal imported on the Bellefonte, Nittany, & Lemont Railroad, later part of the Pennsylvania Railroad, contributing to the regional economy. These buildings are rare surviving examples of wooden structures of their kind. Moses Thompson was also a founder of Farmer's High School, now Penn State University.

137 Mt. Nittany Rd., across from grain elevator, Lemont, PA, United States

John Montgomery Ward. Baseball pioneer, born in Bellefonte, grew up here. Played for Providence, N.Y. Giants, Brooklyn, 1878-94. Pitched professional baseball's 2nd perfect game, 1880. Formed first players ' union, 1885, & Players' League, 1890. In Baseball Hall of Fame.

236 East Lamb St., Bellefonte, PA, United States

Mills Brothers, The. Grandfather, William H. Mills, a local Jubilee Singer, had a barber shop here, 1871-1931. Father, John H., went to Ohio. Four sons, born there, formed first vocal group to overcome racial barriers, gaining a mass audience. Father was its bass, 1936-56; group endured, 1925-81.

213 W. High St., between Water & Spring, Bellefonte, PA, United States

Pennsylvania Match Factory. One of the nation's leading producers of wooden matches during the first half of the 20th century; founded 1899 by Bellefonte entrepreneurs. The factory buildings opened in 1900, using the vast resources of the surrounding lumber region. By World War II, the company had merged into the Universal Match Corp., and the workforce had grown to 400. The factory in 1947 closed due to competition from book matches and cigarette lighters.

Willowbank St. (PA 150) at Phoenix Ave., Bellefonte, PA, United States

Pennsylvania State University, The. Chartered as an agricultural college in 1855. Located on land donated by James Irvin, the school admitted its first class in 1859 to study the application of science to farming. Designated the state's only land-grant institution in 1863. Penn State was one of the earliest participants in this federally supported system of higher education, which promoted an innovative and diverse curriculum of "liberal and practical education."

Atherton St. (Bus. US 322) between Curtin Rd. & W Park Ave., State College, PA, United States

Philip Benner. The ironmaster's home was at Rock. Here also were the first forge, 1794, and a nail and slitting mill. A founder of Bellefonte; leader in Centre County affairs until his death in 1832.

Buffalo Run Rd. (Rt. 550) at Rock Rd., at Buffalo Run Church, Bellefonte, PA, United States

Potter's Fort. Built 1777 by Gen. James Potter. A stockaded fort refuge for the settlers of the valley region. The site is on the nearby rise.

S Pennsylvania Ave. (PA 144) at S Miles Alley, Centre Hall, PA, United States

Scotia. Two miles southwest of here, an iron center called Scotia was established by Andrew Carnegie in 1881. Here houses were erected, a railroad built, and machinery set up. Some physical traces of the center have remained.

off the Gray's Woods exit of US 220/322, on Gray's Woods Blvd. / Scotia Rd., Patton Township, PA, United States

Union Cemetery. First burial here as early as 1808. Cemetery chartered in 1856. Here lie three Governors of Pennsylvania and their wives -- Andrew Gregg Curtin (1815-1894), who served 1861-67, and Katharine Wilson Curtin (1821-1903); James Addams Beaver (1837-1914), who served 1887-91, and Mary McAllister Beaver (1842-1926); Daniel Hartman Hastings (1849-1903), who served 1895-99, and Jane Rankin Hastings (1851-1937).

At entrance at E Howard St., near Cowdrick Alley, Bellefonte, PA, United States

Union Church. Built of logs in 1820 by Philipsburg pioneers to serve as school and place of worship for all faiths. Remodeled in 1842, church is outstanding example of simplified American Gothic architecture.

Presqueisle St. (US 322) near N 7th St., Philipsburg, PA, United States

William F. Packer. The newspaper editor and publisher, and Governor of the Commonwealth, 1858-61, was born April 2, 1807, in a house which stood nearby. He died, 1870, in Williamsport and is chiefly remembered for his interest in improved transportation facilities.

N Eagle Valley Rd. (PA 150) at Walnut St. (PA 26), Howard, PA, United States

Ann Preston, M.D. (1813-1872). A pioneer physician and educator, in 1860 Preston founded the Woman's Hospital of Philadelphia, where she later established one of the nation's first nurses' training schools. A graduate of the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, she became its dean in 1865, the first American woman to hold such an office. She was a Quaker dedicated to women's rights and an abolitionist involved with the Underground Railroad. Preston was born here.

225 State Rd., West Grove, PA, United States

Baptist Church in the Great Valley, The. Organized in 1711 by Welsh families, it is the second oldest Baptist church in the State and the mother of eight nearby congregations. The present building, the second, was erected in 1805. (missing)

SR 1007 (Cassatt Rd.), .4 mile SE of PA 252, Tredyffrin Township, PA, United States

Battle of Brandywine. The British attack on the American right wing began here late in the afternoon. After heavy fighting, the defense line which Sullivan formed hastily near Birmingham Meeting House was forced to retreat to Dilworthtown, 2 miles SE. Reinforcements from Chadds Ford delayed the British as Sullivan's men fell back.

W Street Rd. (PA 926) at Birmingham Rd. (SR 1001) W of Darlington Corners, West Chester, PA, United States

Bayard Rustin. Born here, the civil rights leader and pacifist organized the 1963 March on Washington. Head of A. Phillip Randolph Institute, 1966-1979. Elected to Henderson High School Hall of Fame.

At school entrance, Maple & Convent Aves., West Chester, PA, United States

Birmingham Friends' Meeting House - PLAQUE. Erected in 1783. Used as a hospital after the Battle of Brandywine September 11, 1777.

Wall of Meetinghouse, Birmingham Rd. (SR 2001), .5 mile SE of W Street Rd. (PA 926), West Chester, PA, United States

Brandywine Mansion. Historic Fleming house, purchased by Moses Coates in 1787. Acquired in 1810 by Jesse Kersey and Isaac Pennock, founders of the Brandywine Iron Works. Occupied 1816-1825 by Pennock's son-in-law, Dr. Charles Lukens, whose widow Rebecca continued and expanded the firm's operations following his death. Rebecca Lukens, who lived here until her death in 1854, gained renown for her vision and business capability.

102 S. 1st Ave., Coatesville, PA, United States

British Attack, The - PLAQUE. Upon the American Right Wing under Sullivan at the Battle of Brandywine, September 11, 1777, Began here. (missing)

W Street Rd. (PA 926) at Birmingham Rd. (SR 2001), West Chester, PA, United States

Chester County. One of Pennsylvania's three original counties, formed 1682 by William Penn. Name derived from Cheshire in England. West Chester, the county seat since 1788, was incorporated in 1799. County was the scene of important military activities in 1777-1778.

County Courthouse, 13 N High St., West Chester, PA, United States

Chester Springs. Earlier known as Yellow Springs. Resort since 1750. Washington's headquarters, Sept. 17, 1777, after Battle of Brandywine. Hospital for his soldiers during the winter encampment at Valley Forge, 1777-1778.

Kimberton Rd. (PA 113) at Yellow Springs Rd., Chester Springs, PA, United States

Dilworthtown - PLAQUE. The Battle of Brandywine, September 11, 1777, ended a short distance southeast of this place.

Birmingham Rd. (SR 2001) & Brintons Bridge Rd. (SR 2002), Dilworthtown, PA, United States

Dr. Charlotte Moore Sitterly (1898-1990). Prominent authority on astronomy and author of more than one hundred books and articles, Sitterly was a career physicist with the Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce. She received the American Astronomical Society award in 1937 and was the first woman elected to the Royal Astronomical Society of Great Britain, 1949. Born here in Ercildoun, Dr. Sitterly was a lifelong Quaker and attended Fallowfield Friends Meeting nearby.

640 Buck Run Rd., East Fallowfield Township, PA, United States

Duffy's Cut Mass Grave. Nearby is the mass grave of fifty-seven Irish immigrant workers who died in August, 1832, of cholera. They had recently arrived in the United States and were employed by a construction contractor, named Duffy, for the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad. Prejudice against Irish Catholics contributed to the denial of care to the workers. Their illness and death typified the hazards faced by many 19th century immigrant industrial workers.

King Rd. at Sugartown Rd., Malvern, PA, United States

Eusebius Barnard (1802-1865). Born a Quaker, Barnard became a member of the Progressive Friends movement and upheld its active affirmation of the ideals of temperance, equality of women, and abolition of slavery. His farm became a station on the Underground Railroad. He and his family, at great risk to their own lives, provided shelter to freedom seekers and then escorted them to their next safe haven. He was a founding member of the Longwood Progressive Meeting.

715 S Wawaset Rd., Pocopson Township, PA, United States

Evan Pugh, Ph.D.. Scientist, educator, humanitarian, and first President of Penn State University, 1859-64. Pugh trained as agricultural chemist; promoted application of science education to farming and industry. He founded and conducted Jordan Bank Academy at his home 3 miles south. (missing)

Jordan Bank Elem. School, S. Fifth and Hodgson streets, Oxford, PA, United States

Frederick Douglass (1818-1895). Champion of human freedom, African American abolitionist, newspaper editor, U.S. Colored Troops recruiter, U.S. ambassador to Haiti, and orator, Frederick Douglass gave his last public address "Against Lynch Law" here on February 1, 1895. A frequent visitor to West Chester, Douglass denounced lynching and bigotry and urged freedom, justice, and equality for all Americans. The Frederick Douglass Institute here maintains Douglass' legacy.

West Chester Univ. campus, between Library and Main Hall, facing High St, West Chester, PA, United States