G. Raymond Rettew. A West Chester chemist, he pioneered the mass production of penicillin, the world's first antibiotic. In 1943, with Wyeth Laboratories, his lab ( a converted auto repair shop here) made & sent more penicillin to the Armed Forces than any other lab in the world, saving countless lives on the battlefields of World War II.

Walnut & Chestnut Streets, West Chester, PA, United States

General Lafayette. On July 26, 1825 after visiting the Battlefield of Brandywine, General Lafayette came to West Chester, and from a point one and one-half blocks east of here, he reviewed troops parading in his honor.

NW corner, N. Church & W. Lafayette Sts., West Chester, PA, United States

Great Minquas Path. An important Indian trail, key to Pennsylvania's fur trade in the 17th century, crossed the present highway near here. It linked trading posts on the lower Schuylkill with Indian towns to the west. The Dutch, Swedes, and English fought one another for control of path.

Bus. US 322 at Church Ave., West Chester, PA, United States

Great Trail (The) - Minquas or Susquehanna Indians- PLAQUE. From the Susquehanna to the Schuylkill. Crossed the present road about this point. It was the path prior to 1670 for their conquest of the Lenni-Lenape or Delaware Indians and for trade with the first Dutch and Swedish settlers on the Delaware River...

Bus. US 322 at Church Ave., West Chester, PA, United States

Horace Pippin. Born in West Chester in 1888, Pippin occupied this house from 1920 until his death in 1946. A self-taught black artist, he painted while living here such notable works as "Domino Players," "John Brown Going to His Hanging," and the "Holy Mountain" series.

327 Gay St., West Chester, PA, United States

Hosanna Meeting House. Founded by free Blacks who had settled in this area, it was first known as the "African Meeting House." Formally organized in 1843 as an African Union Methodist Protestant church. A station stop on the Underground Railroad, its many visitors included Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth.

Old US 1 (Baltimore Pike) near Ashmun Rd., N of Lincoln University campus, Lower Oxford Township, PA, United States

Ida Ella Ruth Jones (1874-1959). African American self-taught artist who depicted life in rural Chester County in the first half of the 20th century. The daughter of a former slave, Jones completed more than 300 works in her 70s and 80s. She worked in watercolor, oil, and pencil in a style typical of folk art. Her works illustrated personal observations of family and farm life, nature, landscapes, early technologies, human interaction, and slavery. Jones resided on a nearby farm.

Pa. 82 (Doe Run Rd.) at Rokeby Rd., East Fallowfield Township, PA, United States

Indian Hannah (1730-1802) - PLAQUE. The last of the Indians in Chester County was born in the vale about 300 yards to the east on the land of the protector of her people the Quaker assemblyman WILLIAM WEBB. Her mother was Indian Sarah and her grandmother Indian Jane of the Unami group...

PA 52 (E side), .2 mile N of US 1 junction, Kennett Square, PA, United States

John Beale Bordley. The noted agriculturalist purchased land just north of here in 1792 and named it "Como Farm." Here, he conducted numerous experiments on crop rotation and maintenance of soil fertility. Bordley planned new devices for seeding and reaping wheat. His works on Rotation of Crops and Husbandry and Rural Affairs were widely read. Died, 1804.

Strasburg Rd. (SR 3062) & Broad Rd., Marshalltown, PA, United States

John G. Parke. Born in this vicinity on Sept. 22, 1827, the noted Army Engineer is remembered chiefly for having set the exact boundary between the Oregon Territory and Canada. His survey, begun in 1857, was halted by service in the Civil War and was not completed until 1869. He later became Supt. of West Point.

Business US 30 at Veterans Hospital, near N Cain Rd., Coatesville, PA, United States

Joseph T. Rothrock. Conservationist, father of the State Forest idea in Pennsylvania, lived in this house from 1876 until his death in 1922. He pioneered in the development of forest fire control, reforestation, and scientific forestry.

NW corner, N Church St. & W Lafayette St., West Chester, PA, United States

Lincoln Biography. The first published biography of Abraham Lincoln was printed in this building on Feb.11, 1860. It was prepared from Lincoln's own notes and served to introduce him to the public as a potential presidential candidate.

28 W. Market St., West Chester, PA, United States

Lincoln University. Chartered as Ashmun Institute, April 29, 1854. Founded by Rev. John Miller Dickey for the purpose of providing liberal higher education for people of African ancestry in America. In 1866, it became Lincoln University, interracial and international.

Baltimore Pike (SR 3026) across from university, Oxford, PA, United States

Minguannan Indian Town - PLAQUE. Minguannan Indian Town was located here. The chief Machaloha or Owhala and his people of the Unami group *Their totem*The tortoise*of the Lenni-Lenape or Delawares sold to William Penn the lands between Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay to the falls of ...

Junction of London Tract Rd. (SR 3034), Sharpless Rd., and S Bank Rd., London Britain Twp., Strickersville, PA, United States

Osborne's Hill - PLAQUE. From this ridge General Howe directed the movements of the British Army at the Battle of Brandywine, September 11, 1777.

Birmingham Rd. (SR 2001) & Country Club Rd. at driveway to Osborne Hill, West Chester, PA, United States

Parker Kidnapping & Rescue. Emboldened by the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law, Maryland slave catchers kidnapped Rachel and Elizabeth Parker from the Nottingham area in 1851. Rachel's employer Joseph Miller was murdered in a failed attempt to rescue her from Baltimore. Public outrage led Pa. officials to seek the sisters' release in a Md. civil court case that secured their freedom in 1853. The forcible enslavement of two young free black women galvanized antislavery sentiment.

At Fremont Cemetery & Union Methodist Church, 321 Fremont Rd., Nottingham, Nottingham, PA, United States

Pennhurst State School & Hospital. Between 1908 and 1987, more than 10,500 Pennsylvanians with developmental disabilities lived here. Public controversy over the inhumane treatment of residents and two decades of complex litigation, including three arguments before the US Supreme Court, led to the institution's closure. Ground-breaking advocacy and new public policy, including transition to community-based living, made Pennhurst a milestone in the disabilities civil rights movement.

Schuylkill Rd. (PA 174) near Bridge St., Spring City, PA, United States

Pennsylvania. Founded 1681 by William Penn as a Quaker Commonwealth. Birthplace of THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE and THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

PA 41 at Kaolin Rd. overpass, approx. .7 miles from state line, New Garden Township, PA, United States

Peter Bezellon. Famed Indian trader and interpreter bought a tract of 500 acres in this area in 1736. This site is a part of the tract. He died in 1742. Bezellon and his wife, Martha, lie buried in St. John's churchyard at Compass, Penna.

West Chester Rd (SR 3064) at Oak St., Coatesville, PA, United States

Philadelphia & Lancaster Turnpike. This was the nation's first major toll road, built by a private company incorporated 1792 by the state legislature. Completed two years later and praised as the finest highway of its day, the stone-and-gravel turnpike stretched 62 miles. The 35th milestone out of Philadelphia was placed here. Early in the 20th century, this road was acquired by the state; it became part of the transcontinental Lincoln Highway and U.S. 30.

E Lincoln Hwy. (Bus. Rt. 30), near Veterans Dr., Cain Twp., Coatesville, PA, United States

Phoenix Iron Company. Established in 1783 and incorporated in 1855, the Phoenix 'works' produced nails, rail, Civil War cannons, weaponry for 20th century wars, and structural steel. Among its well known products were the Griffen Gun, 1861, and the Phoenix Column, 1862. Closed in 1987.

Main St. at Price St. near municipal parking lot, Phoenixville, PA, United States

Samuel Barber (1910-1981). Boyhood home of this composer of orchestral and vocal works, including the "Adagio for Strings" and "Knoxville: Summer of 1915." Won Pulitzer Prizes in music, 1958 & 1963. Graduate, Curtis Institute. He wrote West Chester High's Alma Mater song.

107 S Church St., West Chester, PA, United States

Springton Manor. The largest reserved estate of the Penns in Chester County. It was first authorized by William Penn as a 10,000 acre tract in 1701. After resurvey in 1730, it contained 8,313 acres, including most of present Wallace Township. The southern boundary line of the Manor was near this point.

Springton Rd (SR 4021) & Highspire Rd., 1 mile N of US 322, NW of Downingtown, Wallace Township, PA, United States

Star of the West, Tent No. Six. An African American women's community service organization, chartered 1865. A part of the United Order of Tents, J. R. Giddings and Jollifee Union, founded in 1847 and named for abolitionist Congressman Giddings and his law partner.

113 S Adams St., West Chester, PA, United States

Thomas B. Read. The painter and poet was born Mar. 12, 1822, a mile away. Author of well-known "Sheridan's Ride." Spent mature years in Europe, but died in New York City, May 11, 1872, and is buried in Philadelphia. (missing)

US 322 at Corner Ketch Lyndell Rd.(SR 4037), Downingtown, PA, United States

Thomas McKean. The signer of the Declaration of Independence, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania and Governor, from 1799 to 1808, was born on this farm on March 19, 1734. Also active in the politics of Delaware, he encouraged Caesar Rodney to cast the deciding vote for American independence.

1895 New London Rd. (PA 896) between Pennbrook Dr. and Walnut Glen Rd., NW of PA 841, Franklin Twp., PA, United States

Valley Forge General Hospital. Opened in 1943, it was among the nation's largest military hospitals by the end of World War II. Able to treat more than 3,000 patients in over 100 buildings, the facility specialized in the pioneering treatment of war-related eye and burn injuries, introducing innovations in eye surgery, plastic surgery, and rehabilitation. The hospital treated casualties of World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam Conflict before closing in 1974.

near 1401 Charlestown Rd., Phoenixville, PA, United States

Village of Valley Forge. Village settled by the workers at iron forge begun in 1742. The forge and part of village were burned by the British army in 1777. Washington's quarters during the winter of 1777-78 were in Isaac Potts' house, a part of the original village.

Valley Forge Rd. (PA 23) near Owen Dr. and fire station at E end of village and Montgomery Co. line, Valley Forge, PA, United States

Village of Valley Forge. Village settled by the workers at iron forge begun in 1742. The forge and part of village were burned by the British army in 1777. Washington's quarters during the winter of 1777-78 were in the Isaac Potts' house, a part of the original village.

Valley Forge Rd. (PA 23) near Valley Park Rd. and across from Owen Dr., Valley Forge, PA, United States

Whittier C. Atkinson (1893-1991). Founded Clement Atkinson Memorial Hospital here, 1936, offering quality health care to all despite inability to pay. First African American president of Chester County Medical Society; Pa. Practitioner of the year, 1960. A 1924 graduate of Howard University, he began his Coatesville practice in 1927.

824 E Chestnut St., Coatesville, PA, United States

William Darlington. Physician, Congressman, began a service of 33 years as president of Bank of Chester County in this building, 1830. Especially noted for his many contributions to the science and study of botany in the early 1800's. He died in 1863.

13 N. High St. between Market & Gay Sts., West Chester, PA, United States

Woman's Rights Convention of 1852. The first Woman's Rights Convention in Pennsylvania was held here, June 2-3, 1852, four years after the famous Seneca Falls, New York, Convention. It adopted resolutions promoting the legal, educational, and vocational rights of women.

225 N. High St., at Co. Historical Soc., West Chester, PA, United States

Clarion County. Formed March 11, 1839 out of Armstrong and Venango counties. Named for the Clarion River. Early center of iron industry. Noted also for its coal resources and lumbering. The county seat, Clarion, was incorporated as a borough on April 6, 1841.

Courthouse, Main St. at 5th Ave., Clarion, PA, United States

Fishbasket Old Town. Near here, at the mouth of Town Run on Redbank Creek, a Shawnee village stood in the late 18th century. Called "Fishbasket" for these waters' immense schools of fish, it was at the junction of at least two major paths traveled by Native Americans: the Frankstown-Venango and Punxsutawney-Venango Paths. Prehistoric fortified Indian villages, revealed by archaeological investigations, also existed in this locale.

Rte. 28, Alcola, PA, United States

A. W. Tozer (1897-1963). One of the most significant evangelical Christian authors of the 20th century, Tozer was born a few miles south of here in LaJose (Newburg). A pastor with The Christian and Missionary Alliance and a nationally recognized theologian, lecturer and writer, he was the featured speaker here at the Mahaffey Camp Summer Bible Conference in the 1940s and 1950s. Over 3 million copies of his more than 40 books are in print throughout the world.

1598 Mahaffey Grampian Hwy. (Rt. 219), Mahaffey, Mahaffey, PA, United States

Arnold N. Nawrocki (1925-2003). While working for the Clearfield Cheese Co. on nearby Meadow St., he invented the first commercially successful process for individually wrapped cheese slices. A patent was issued in 1956. An engineer, Nawrocki secured eleven food processing patents over his career.

424 State St., (Rt. 879), Curwensville, PA, United States

Chinklacamoose. Name of the Indian village located here, and visited by C.F. Post while traveling to an Indian council at Kuskuski in 1758. The later Clearfield is said to get its name from clearings made by grazing bison along nearby creeks.

PA 879 & S 2nd St., Clearfield, PA, United States

Clearfield County. Formed March 26, 1804 out of Huntingdon and Lycoming counties. Clear fields, found by early travelers, gave rise to the name. County was important for logging and rafting on the West Branch, 1850-1901. The county seat, Clearfield, was incorporated 1840.

County Historical Museum, E. Pine St. & Front St., Clearfield, PA, United States

George Rosenkrans. Noted band composer (1881-1955) lived most of his life in Penfield and was church organist here. Rosenkrans wrote piano and organ music and hymns, as well as over 200 band numbers. Among his marches are "Triumphant Battalions" and "Our Glorious Flag."

Pa. 255 at Methodist Church, Penfield, PA, United States

William Bigler (1814-1880). State Senator, 1841-1847; Governor of Pennsylvania, 1852-1855; and U.S. Senator, 1856-1861. Opposed slavery; favored a Southern compromise to avoid the Civil War. His brother, John, was elected Governor of California, 1852. Resided here.

11 North Second St., Clearfield, PA, United States

Zenas Leonard (1809-1857). Clearfield native and fur trader, Leonard was second in command of the Joseph Reddeford Walker Expedition from 1831-1834 to find a route to the Pacific Ocean through the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Leonard served as the expedition''s clerk and chronicler, recording the first non-native American encounter of giant sequoia trees. In 1839 Leonard published his account of the expedition, recognized for its detailed descriptions.

Corner of Daisy St. Ext. (Rt. 322) and Leonard St., Clearfield, PA, United States

Clinton County. Formed on June 21, 1839 out of Lycoming and Centre counties. Named probably for New York's Gov. DeWitt Clinton. Site of "Tiadaghton Declaration of Independence," 1776. In 19th century a lumbering center. Lock Haven, the county seat, became a city in 1870.

Clinton Co. Courthouse, Jay & Water Sts., Lock Haven, PA, United States

Fort Reed. William Reed's stockaded house was the westernmost defense for Susquehanna Valley settlers. The site of the pioneer outpost is a few blocks ahead at the monument near the bridge.

Pa. 120 at Pa. 150, Lock Haven, PA, United States

Great Shamokin Path. By the Indian path along Bald Eagle Creek, in 1772, Bishop Ettwein, Moravian, brought some 200 Christian Mohicans and Delawares from Friedenshuetten, near Wyalusing, to Friedensstadt on the Beaver.

Eagle Valley Rd. (PA 150/old US 220) near Beech Creek Ave., Mill Hall Boro, PA, United States

Leidy Natural Gas Boom. Against expert advice, Dorcie Calhoun drilled Leidy Township's first successful deep gas well about a quarter-mile south of here. On January 8, 1950, the well hit natural gas at a depth of 5,659 feet, and for a time it brought up an estimated 15 million cubic feet per day. This news attracted national attention, and within months more than 30 companies and independents were drilling here before production ceased.

SR 4001 just W of the Leidy Bridge, Leidy Township, PA, United States

Pennsylvania Canal (West Branch Division). Division was built from Northumberland to Lock Haven in 1828-34. Until 1889 boats carried iron, lumber and manufacturers from this area to eastern markets. Here the Bald Eagle Cross Cut Canal joined the division connecting with it by two locks, a dam and a tow-path bridge.

Pa. 120 (E. Water St. near Jay St.), Lock Haven, PA, United States

Catawissa Friends Meeting. The nearby Friends meetinghouse, built about 1790, was the place of worship for early Quaker settlers among the pioneers of this region. Catawissa itself was laid out by William Hughs, a Berks County Quaker.

South St. between 3rd & 4th Sts., Catawissa, PA, United States

Columbia County. Formed March 22, 1813 out of Northumberland County. Named in honor of America. County seat, Bloomsburg, became this State's only incorporated town in 1870. A Friends meetinghouse was built at Catawissa about 1789. "Twin covered bridges" at Forks are a unique site.

County Courthouse, Main St., Bloomsburg, PA, United States

Fishing Creek Confederacy. Alarmed about draft resistance, the federal government deployed 800 troops to the Fishing Creek Valley in August 1864 to suppress the opposition. Peace Democrats suspected of Confederate sympathies were questioned at the Christian church near this site; 44 were arrested and imprisoned at Ft. Mifflin without access to civil courts. While most supported the Union, they disagreed with Pres. Lincoln's wartime policies. In 1866, the US Supreme Court declared military arrest & trial of civilians unconstitutional.

90 Mill St. (PA 487), Benton, PA, United States

Fort McClure. Early in 1781 the McClure house was stockaded by the noted Indian fighter, Moses Van Campen, to protect settlers in this region after destruction of Fort Jenkins in 1780. Site on the north bank of the Susquehanna in present Bloomsburg.

U.S. 11 at Fairgrounds, Bloomsburg, PA, United States