Historic Trails. During the mass slaughter of buffaloes in the Panhandle, two trails arose to meet the needs of the hunters and their ever-hungry markets. Started about 1876, both moved vast convoys of wagons across the plains. Charles Rath-- transporting gun powder, lead, tobacco, whiskey, and food staples-- blazed a road from Dodge City to the Double Mountains. In two years, however, the best hunting was over and the route fell into disuse. Ed Jones and Joe Plummer forged a trail from Kansas to Fort Elliott. Their route became a freight road and finally a cattle road. (1969) #41

?, Canadian, TX, United States

6666 Dixon Creek Ranch. Takes name from creek where noted buffalo hunter and scout Billy Dixon established first dugout home on High Plains, 1874. Ranch founded, 1882, by Francklyn Land and Cattle Co., English firm backed by Cunard Steamship Co. Fenced, 1884, with barbed wire hauled here from railroad at Dodge City; posts were of Palo Duro Canyon cedars. Purchased in 1903 by S. Burk Burnett (1849-1922), trail driver, rancher; an organizer and for 45 years on executive board, Texas Cattle Raisers Association. Host during 1905 wolf hunt to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. (1965) (Ranch not open to public.) #42

?, Panhandle, TX, United States

Andrew Herron Home. **BUILDING GONE** #43

906 Mill Road, Seguin, TX, United States

A Jesse James Hideout. Jesse James, celebrated 1860s-1882 Missouri outlaw, used to visit in Archer City in house built by Stone Land and Cattle Company for its manager, Allen H. Parmer (1848-1927), his Confederate comrade of the Civil War and husband of his sister Susan (1849-89). With Frank James, his brother and aide, the outlaw chief hid at the Parmers' when hunted for train and bank robberies or on other occasions. Jesse James was killed in 1882; Frank and his wife continued to visit at Parmer's house, which was later moved from original site. Parmer brought up a family of respected, upright citizens. Erected by Archer County Historical Survey Committee. House is shown only by appointment, 1972. #44

?, Archer City, TX, United States

Civil War Education in Texas. Baylor University (including the "Female Department" later to become Mary Hardin-Baylor) had operated at Independence for 15 years before 1861. In the Civil War it suffered the setbacks of Texas education in general. This was despite leadership of its 1861-63 president George W. Baines (ancestor of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson) and loyalty of such patrons as Mrs. Sam Houston and her mother, who donated dried fruit for the tables in the dining hall. State bounties for education that previously had aided Texas colleges stopped in 1861. Many of the 2,416 students of 1860 became soldiers; many of the 25 Texas colleges had to close. Schools for younger children also suffered. The 1861 legislature passed free school laws, but could give no funds to schools. Children who waved from classroom doors to marching soldiers were going to subscription schools, paid for by their own parents. Old men, women and the disabled were the teachers. A mother or older sister often would "hear lessons" in the home. Books were scarce. Paper was unobtainable for replacing those that wore out. Writing was done on slates or in sand spread smooth on a table. (1964) #45

?, Belton, TX, United States

A. B. Robertson Ranch. A noted pioneer in the West Texas cattle industry, Andrew Briggs ("Sug") Robertson was born in 1855 in Indiana. While still a young boy he came to Texas and learned the skills of a cowboy. Iin 1901 he bought land in this area and established the "V" ranch, stocked it with Hereford cattle, and made a specialty of raising that breed. This two-story brick home, constructed in 1911 by contractors C. Raymond and Clifford Westerman, served as ranch headquarters and as the Robertson family residence. It became headquarters for the "C Bar" ranch in 1950. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986. #46

?, Lorenzo, TX, United States

A. A. and Susanna Head Homestead. Alanson Asbury (A. A.) Head (1843-1925) and his wife, Susanna Alabama Bethany (1843-1924) built a two-story residence here about 1877. Over the years A. A. and Susanna, known as Uncle Ben and Aunt Sukie, terraced about 300 acres here on which they cultivated various orchards, vineyards, and berry patches. Their farm prospered and in 1903 they donated two acres across the road from their home for the building of the Head Chapel Methodist Church. In 1908 the Heads donated an adjoining 2 acres to establish the Bethany Rest Cemetery, where they were later buried side by side. (1993) #47

?, Alvarado, TX, United States

A. B. Medlan Home. Built of brick made on this farm, settled 1855 by A.B. Medlan, Texas Ranger, Church leader and builder, treasurer and commissioner of Young County. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1964. #48

SH 67 & County Road, SW of Graham, Graham, TX, United States

A.C. Purvis House. San Benito was a "paper" town with no Anglo-American residents when Albanus Clemens Purvis (1850-1919) came here from Ohio to seek health. He became first Justice of the Peace, sold real estate, and farmed. His daughter Kate (later Mrs. J. Scott Brown) taught first school in 1907; daughter Emma (later Mrs. Asa Agar) was an early Postmaster, in 1911. A former mill owner and a skilled craftsman, Purvis in 1911 built this house for himself, his wife Margaret Ann (householder), and the two youngest of their nine children. The property still remains in the ownership of a descendant. (1974) #50

441 N. Reagan, San Benito, TX, United States

A. C. Schreiner, Jr. Home. Prominent Kerrville rancher, businessman, philanthropist, and civic leader Charles A. Schreiner built the original part of this house in 1897 as a wedding gift for his son C. A., Jr. In 1912 it became the home of Schreiner's grandson A. C. Schreiner, Jr. (1890-1963), also an active area business leader. The second floor, arched porch, and tile roof were added in 1927. Designed by noted San Antonio architect Alfred Giles, they reflect influences of the Spanish style. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1981 #51

?, Kerrville, TX, United States

A. H. Fortenberry. In the 1850s, A. H. ("Sevier") Fortenberry and his second wife Jane (Odell) moved from Arkansas to the wilderness then existing in this section of Texas. Living as a farmer and stock raiser, Fortenberry joined neighbors in warding off Indian raids which endangered the settlements. On October 30, 1868, at a site 3/4 of a mile northwest of this marker, he was intercepted and killed by Indians while trying to join a defensive posse. He was buried in the Pollard Cemetery, Denton County. It is thought that he was the last fatality in the Indian Wars in this vicinity. (1977) #52

FM 51, Slidell, TX, United States

A. J. Moore High School. In 1875 professor A.J. Moore of Paul Quinn College, concerned over the lack of quality education for Waco's negro population, began teaching small groups of children in his home. The first schoolhouse, a frame building that had been relocated east of this site, had formerly served as a hospital. In 1923, the frame schoolhouse was replaced with a brick building. The school was renamed for its founder, A.J. Moore, who served as principal from 1881 to 1905. As the first school in Waco designated to educate the city's negro youth, A.J. Moore High School was an important institution in the community. Until 1952, Moore High housed students from grades one through twelve from 1952 to 1971 it served grades seven through twelve only. Moore High was closed in 1971. More than 4,000 students were graduated form A.J. Moore High School during its nearly 100 years of service. Many of them have made significant contributions in the fields of education, medicine, religion, law, public health, business, engineering, law enforcement, social services,theater, sports, and military service. (1985) #53

?, Waco, TX, United States

A. J. Northington House. With first part built 1872 by a Hood's Texas Brigade veteran, county commissioner, Legislator, whose historic store also survives, on the town square. This was only frame home standing in the creek area after the 1873 flood. Two-story section, built later, made an ell of the old house. (1964) #54

803 S. Live Oak St., Lampasas, TX, United States

A. J. Warren Building. Farmer and rancher A. J. Warren (1870-1933) moved to this area in 1902 and helped to organize Lynn County in 1903. He built this 2-story brick and concrete edifice in 1925 to house the First National Bank, chartered that year. Competition from another bank led to merger of the two and abandonment of this building in 1926. Various stores and offices occupied the structure before it was acquired by the city of O'Donnell in 1973. It became the O'Donnell Museum in 1974. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1975 #55

corner of 8th and Doak Streets, O'Donnell, TX, United States

A. M. Brownfield Home. A. M. Brownfield, for whose family this town was named, came to Terry County as a rancher in 1900. An early community leader, he organized the Brownfield State Bank in 1905. Built as a home for his family in 1928, this structure exhibits influences of the Spanish colonial style of architecture. The concrete and clay building materials were used to make the home as fireproof as possible, since an earlier family residence had been destroyed by fire in 1915. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1985. #56

600 E. Cardwell, Brownfield, TX, United States

A.T. & S.F. No. 5000 "Madam Queen". A star of the age of steam transportation. Pride of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, which came into Texas in 1886, has its Panhandle and Santa Fe General Offices in Amarillo, and served much of this area. Manufactured at the cost of $133,902.80 by world-famed Baldwin Locomotive Works, according to designs made by Santa Fe engineers. "Pilot" locomotive of its type, a model and champion in power and speed. When this locomotive went into service in December 1930, Santa Fe (like other American railways) had ceased to name engines for officers or celebrities, but called them by number. This was No. 5000. But one of the first engineers to steer it over the rails affectionately called it "Madam Queen", for a character in radio's popular "Amos and Andy" show. Gallant, faithful, swift, and strong, "Madam Queen" ran for more than 1,750,000 miles. Prior to diesels, this was the greatest of Santa Fe's locomotives. Its tender held 20,000 gallons of water and 7,107 gallons of fuel. Locomotive and tender weighed 662,500 pounds. Tractive force was 93,000 pounds. Boiler pressure, 300 pounds per square inch. Retired from service, November 1953, the "Queen" was given to City of Amarillo on April 19, 1957. (1965) #57

Santa Fe Station, 4th & Grant St., Amarillo, TX, United States

Baden-Sproule House. Designed by noted Galveston architect Nicholas J. Clayton, this house was built in 1899 by Ida B. Baden on land once known as Thomas Borden's farm. West Island landowner John D. Settle sold Miss Baden the land and assisted here in the architectural arrangements. A wealthy property owner, Baden owned considerable stock in the Galveston Wharf Company, which was highly unusual. She died in 1906 at 43, following a sudden illness in her uptown residence, 2407 Avenue E. Her sister of Boston inherited the estate. The house was sold in 1913 to Benno Sproule, the principal in an ocean freight brokerage business. Following Sproule's death in 1932, his family continued to occupy the home until 1959. A fine example of the Queen Anne style of architecture, the house features a wraparound veranda with paired turned posts. Bow windows can be seen at the first and second floor levels, and fishscale shingles appear on the second floor. A balconette in the front gable exhibits a Palladian-inspired motif. Outstanding features also include the paneled and pedimented fireplace back and corbelled chimney caps. The home stands as an important element of Galveston's development and architectural history. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1989 #58

1919 37th St., Galveston, TX, United States

Arden Community. This ranching community was named for John Arden, a sheep raiser who arrived in 1876. After 1900, small homesteaders moved into the area. Joe Funk gave land for a school and cemetery in 1903. Baptist Church of Christ and Methodist congregations shared the schoolhouse for worship. Camp meetings were held at "the Grove" on Rocky Creek. In 1916 the school moved to a brick building at this site. Following a series of droughts, Arden began to decline. The post office closed in 1942 and the school in 1947. A frame polling station replaced the brick schoolhouse here. (1979) #59

?, Mertzon, TX, United States

Old Ball Home. -- #60

1405 24th Street, Galveston, TX, United States

Atascosa Lodge No. 379, A.F. and A.M.. Organized by eleven Master Masons in Benton City in 1872 and chartered June 9, 1873, by Grand Lodge of Texas. First hall, erected of stone in 1876, provided space for public school. The lodge, which has furnished social and cultural leadership to this locality, was moved to Lytle on May 20, 1909. (1970) Marker in appreciation for Masons past and present. #61

19004 Somerset Road, Lytle, TX, United States

Ball High School. Following the creation of a public free school system in Galveston in 1881, philanthropist George Ball (1817-1884) made a proposal to the city for the construction of a high school. He offered either to donate funds for the building of a school or to have it built himself and then donate it to the city. The city leaders voted to have Ball build the school. A contract was signed with the George Locke and co. Construction firm on January 15, 1884, and the cornerstone was laid one month later. The stone was inscribed "George Ball to the Children of Galveston." Ball died the following month, before the school was completed. The first graduation ceremony at the school took place on May 31, 1887. Members of the Ball family continued to support the school, and public donations helped rebuild the school following the 1900 storm. Ball High School opened at its present location in 1955. It was merged with Central High School in 1969. Many people prominent in Galveston history graduated from Ball High School, including Albert Lasker, John Sealy, and Marion Levy. The school continues its century-old tradition of educating Galveston's young people. (1988) #62

4115 Ave. O, Galveston, TX, United States

W. P. Ballinger Law Firm. Oldest continuous law firm in Texas. Founded Nov. 13, 1846, by William Pitt Ballinger (1825-1888), who on that day received first law license issued by state of Texas, through first judicial district court. A veteran of the Mexican war, he later was a distinguished Texas statesman. Ballinger's first partners -- in Jones, Butler & Ballinger -- were John M. Jones and Jonas Butler. Ballinger relatives who have formed line of descendancy in the firm include a son, Thomas J. Ballinger, grandson Ballinger Mills, Sr., and great-grandson Ballinger Mills, Jr. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1967 #63

2228 Mechanic, Suite 400, Galveston, TX, United States

Frederick William Beissner House. Designed by Galveston architect William H. Roystone for local real estate agent Frederick William Beissner (1854-1905) and his wife Mary, this Victorian-era home was built in 1888. Its elaborate Eastlake details include turned posts, jigsawn porch balustrades, recurring floral motifs, corbelled chimney, cross-gabled roof capped by a widow's walk, and varying patterns of imbricated shingles. The home remained in the Beissner family until 1913. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1990 #64

1702 Ball Avenue, Galveston, TX, United States

Frank Bell, Jr.. (1893-1963) was the son of early La Marque settlers Flavery and Frank Bell, Sr. Although he received little formal education, he was able to achieve business success and became a respected civic leader in La Marque's African American community. Bell served in the U. S. Army during World War I and later was stationed in this area. He retired from the army and began working in the oil industry in Texas City. In 1938 he began a real estate career with the purchase of land in La Marque which he and partner Will Mentor subdivided into residential lots. As a partner in the B A & P Realty Company Bell helped develop a number of residential subdivisions in La Marque's African American communities in the 1940s. Bell gained a reputation for fairness in his real estate dealings and as owner of a neighborhood store and gas station. A behind-the-scenes force in local affairs, he served on Galveston County's Negro Chamber of Commerce and was often referred to as La Marque's unofficial African American mayor. Bell played a vital role in the creation of Carver Park and in obtaining needed funds to enhance the religious, educational, and recreational opportunities for the city's African American community. Sesquicentennial of texas Statehood 1845 - 1995 #65

1111 Bayou Road, La Marque, TX, United States

Abbott Baptist Church. Organized in 1876 as the Liberty Grove Baptist Church by 13 founding members, this congregation met in the Liberty Grove Schoolhouse 2 miles south of here. Renamed the Abbott Baptist Church in 1879, the church moved to Abbott in 1885. Services were held in the Methodist Church until 1892 when a Baptist Sanctuary was erected. Additions to the facilities were made in 1923 and in 1949 as the membership grew. The church has maintained active community outreach and foreign missionary programs, and has been an integral part of the community for more than 120 years. (1996) #66

102 S. Borden, Abbott, TX, United States

Abbott House. Jo Abbott and his wife, Rowena Sturgis Abbott, bought this property in 1883 and later built the house next door (west). Abbott was a county and district judge, congressman, and local banker. In 1899 this house (originally a T-plan) was on the property when it was conveyed to their banker son, James, and his wife, Nancy, at the birth of their first child. Additions in 1907, when they sold the house, and in 1918 resulted in the transitional classical-bungalow styling. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1986 #67

130 Corsicana, Hillsboro, TX, United States

Abbott Schools. The public school system in Abbott began in 1885 when a one-story frame schoolhouse was constructed on the east side of town. It housed 140 pupils and three teachers. A two-story brick structure, built at this site in 1911, served the Abbott school system for 55 years. The schools were given full accreditation about 1934, and a vocational agriculture program was begun in 1939. Consolidation with surrounding area districts has increased enrollment over the years. The Abbott schools have played an important role in the town's development. (1985) #68

60 First Street, Abbott, TX, United States

Abbott United Methodist Church. The first Methodist worship service in Abbott was held in 1883 by the Rev. G. W. Swofford. A congregation soon was organized and became a regular stop on the Hillsboro circuit, with the Rev. J. P. Mussett as first pastor. By 1886 the congregation had more than 600 members. The first Methodist sanctuary, built in 1884, served until the current church building was completed in 1899. Although both the population of Abbott and membership in the church have declined since the 1940s, Abbott United Methodist Church retains important historic ties to the town's early heritage. (1984) #69

?, Abbott, TX, United States

Abilene Christian University. This school, formed to provide a Christian education for all grade levels, was founded in 1906 by A. B. Barret, an early educator and preacher for Texas Churches of Christ. It was first called Childers Classical Institute in honor of Colonel J. W. Childers, who deeded his homesite at North 1st and Victoria streets for use as a campus. Early expansion of the institution began in 1912 with the 12-year presidency of Jesse P. Sewell. In 1920 it became Abilene Christian College and nine years later was moved to new facilities here. The present name was adopted in 1976. #70

1600 Campus Court, Abilene, TX, United States

Abilene Negro High School. The first public school for African Americans in Abilene was established in 1890. Located in the 200 block of Plum Street, the one-room school was named the Abilene Colored School. Its first class consisted of 22 students and one teacher. In 1902 the school moved to a one-room structure built at North 7th and Magnolia, and had two teachers serving 84 students. The colored school held its first graduation in 1923 at the Macedonia Baptist Church for one student. A five-room school was constructed at 541 North 8th Street in 1929. That year the student body consisted of 217 pupils. The building was later used for the Americanization School for Abilene's Hispanic Youth, and as a community recreation center. A 10-room brick school was erected in 1936 here on a campus of more than 6 acres. A 4-room expansion was added in 1941. By 1951 the school became Carter G. Woodson School. In 1953 it became Woodson Elementary School with the opening of the Carter G. Woodson Junior-Senior High School at 342 North Cockrell Street. It was closed in 1968 when the Abilene School District became integrated. The structures continue to serve the Abilene community for various educational purposes. (1996) #71

520 N 9th Street, Abilene, TX, United States

Abilene Reporter-News. The oldest existing business institution in Abilene is the Reporter Publishing Company, started by C. E. Gilbert. The first newspaper was printed on June 17, 1881, three months after the town was founded. Soon after Gilbert began publication, a fire destroyed several buildings in town, including his office. He rode the train to Baird (21 miles east) and, using borrowed presses, published an "extra" edition about the blaze. Two other Abilene papers were started in the 1880s. Part-time preacher W. L. Gibbs began the "Magnetic Quill" in 1882. Three years later Gilbert's printer, James L. Lowry, began the "Taylor County News." One of Lowry's early editions covered a duel between Gilbert and Gibbs, both of whom survived. Later "Reporter" owners were Dr. Alf H. H. Toler, John Hoeny, Jr., George S. Anderson, and Marshall Bernard Hanks, a former delivery boy for the paper who was publisher from 1906 to 1948. In 1911 the "Reporter" bought the "News," resulting in the present name. Hanks and Houston Harte of San Angelo formed the Harte-Hanks organization, now a national communications firm, which includes the "Reporter-News," whose motto is: "Without or with offense to friends or foes we sketch your world exactly as it goes." -Byron. #72

Cypress & N. 1st St., Abilene, TX, United States

Abilene State School. The Texas Legislature provided for the establishment of this institution in 1899 as a center for the treatment of epilepsy. Opened in 1904 under the direction of Dr. John Preton, it was largely self-sufficient, with surrounding land used for raising crops and livestock. Significant research on epilepsy was conducted here by Dr. T. B. Bass, superintendent from 1909 to 1943. A residential facility since 1957, the Abilene State School has developed a leading program of quality care for the mentally retarded based on innovative ideas and widespread community support. #73

664 Maple St, Abilene, TX, United States

Abram Anglin. Star and Wreath Born December 28, 1817. An early Ranger in the Texas War for Independence. Member, Captain Seale's Company 1835-36 that was organized "agreeable to order from the Council of Texas." Died September 6, 1875. #74

FM 1245, 2 mi. N of Groesbeck in Faulkenberg Cemetery, Groesbeck, TX, United States

Absalom H. Chivers Cemetery. This cemetery was established for the family of Absalom H. Chivers, a prosperous farmer and stockman who came here from Mississippi about 1852. With the help of his five slaves, he operated a farm along Dove Creek until his death in 1856. Chivers' grave is thought to be the first in this burial ground, located on his original homestead. The land was set aside as a family cemetery in 1889 by his widow Eleanor (Joyce) Chivers (1816-1896), whose grave is believed to be the last placed here. Native sandstone cairns reflect some of the pioneer burial customs. (1982) #75

1300 block of N Carroll Ave., Southlake, TX, United States

Abston Cemetery. John Abston (1761-1856), a soldier in the American Revolution, was a native of Virginia. In the 1830s Abston and his family moved to Missouri. In 1853 he moved to Collin County, Texas, with the family of his son Jesse. Following Jesse's death that year, the family moved farther south in the county. John Abston and Jesse Abston's widow, Sarah, purchased land in this area in 1854. A small plot of land was set aside as a family burial ground. John Abston's burial here in 1856 was the first in the cemetery. There are thirty-seven marked graves, including those of several generations of the Abston and related families. All but one of the stones bear 19th-century death dates. According to family tradition, Sarah Abston at one time gave a small house and a parcel of land to a former slave, Elias Bellew, with the agreement that he would maintain the cemetery. As a result, the graveyard has also been referred to as the Old Bellew Cemetery. Descendants of those interred in this cemetery still reside in Collin County. The graveyard stands as a reminder of the area's heritage. (1988)*** #76

?, Lavon, TX, United States

Ace Borger Home. The founder of Borger, Missouri-born Asa P. ("Ace") Borger (1888-1934), established other cities in Texas and Oklahoma before he platted this townsite in 1926 and helped transform a rowdy oil town into a stable community. In 1928-29 he and his wife Elizabeth (1888-1933) built this 2-story home, the first brick residence in Borger. It was later occupied by the families of their daughter and son-in-law, Helen and Fritz Thompson, and of their grandson, David W. Thompson. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1976 #77

829 N. Hedgecoke, Borger, TX, United States

Acequia Madre de Valero (Main Irrigation Ditch of Valero Mission). One in a network of ditches begun by the Spanish and their Indian charges at the founding of San Antonio in 1718. Hand-dug and made of dressed limestone, the acequia diverted water from San Antonio River through fields belonging to San Antonio de Valero Mission. Irrigation was the key to the growth of mission and town. The ditch paralleled present Broadway by Brackenridge Park and Alamo Street, then fed back into the river southwest of this section. It became part of modern waterworks after 1877. This section was restored, 1968. #78

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Acton Cemetery. Location of Acton historic site, smallest state park in Texas. Includes the grve of Mrs. Elizabeth P. Crockett (1788-1860), widow of the Alamo hero David Crockett, and 2 of his children. In 1911 a monument and statue were erected to her memory. Acton (formerly Comanche Peak Post Office) was named in 1855 by C.P. Hollis, first merchant in town. In spite of early name, Acton had few Comanche raids. After erecting a building for church and school, area pioneers selected this plot as cemetery. First person buried here was Mrs. Wash Hutcheson, in 1855. (1968) #79

?, Acton, TX, United States

Acton Methodist Church. Settlement of Acton, originally known as Comanche Peak Post Office, began in the early 1850's. By 1855 several local churches, including the Methodist congregation which gave rise to this church, formed a union church and shared a sanctuary on nearby Walnut Creek. Beginning in 1868 union church services were held in the Masonic Lodge Hall. Acton Methodist was well established by 1873, the year it hosted the Methodist Church district conference. In 1874 church trustees purchased 4.4 acres here from V.S. Anglin and G.W. Patton for church, school, and burial purposes. The congregation built its first sanctuary in 1899 and a tabernacle in 1908. Other facilities, built over the years, supported a growing congregation and housed fellowship and sunday school programs. The name of the congregation was changed to the Methodist Church in 1939 and to Acton United Methodist Church in 1968. Construction of the nearby de Cordova Bend Reservoir in 1966 restored prosperity to this area and resulted in a steady expansion of the Acton Methodist congregation; membership in the church grew from 106 in 1973 to 1196 in 1993. The church continues to serve the community with a variety of worship, educational, and outreach programs and activities. (1994) #80

?, Acton, TX, United States

Acton Public Square. The oldest community in what is now Hood County, Acton was settled during the 1850's. First called "Comanche Peak" when a post office was established here on March 10, 1856, the town was renamed "Acton" before the post office was reopened, March 16, 1868. Clarence P. Hollis, pioneer merchant and early postmaster, donated 1.43 acres of land for this public square in the 1860's. Once the hub of commercial activity, the square declined after many of the buildings around it burned. The site was resurveyed in 1974 and restored as center of this rural community. (1976) #81

?, Acton, TX, United States

Adair-Steadman Site. In this vicinity is a prehistoric archeological site discovered in 1969 near the Clear Fork of the Brazos River. Archeologists have conducted extensive scientific excavations and attribute most of the cultural materials to the Paleo-Indian Period. The Adair-Steadman Site was a large base campsite for makers of fluted points, who were part of the distinctive Folsom culture between nine and eleven thousand years ago. Prehistoric peoples chose to live here because of the availability of water at the time of occupation and the presence of a large stone resource area nearby. Stone tools and other material recovered include fluted point fragments, point preforms, channel flakes, scrapers, gravers, and large bifaces. Future archeological, geological, and paleontological studies of the site may yield sufficient data to reconstruct the physical appearance of the site during its period of occupation. One of the most significant locations of Folsom artifacts in North America, the Adair-Steadman Site is important as a valuable source of information on the prehistory of the state, the nation, and the entire continent. It is protected from disturbance by federal and state antiquities laws. (1984) #82

?, Roby, TX, United States

Adams-Shaw House. This house was erected about 1876 for George H. Adams (1842-1920), a rancher and former Texas Ranger, whose cattle brand was carved into the front step. English-born stonemason William Frederick Morton (1851-1926) built it of sandstone quarried in nearby Willis Creek. The structure was purchased in 1908 by Laura (d. 1944) and Colin McKeever Shaw (1850-1944). It was restored and enlarged after 1945 by their son, Neil K. Shaw (1901-1969), and his wife, Maud Dabney Shaw. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1975 #83

1600 Shaw Dr., Brownwood, TX, United States

Add-Ran Christian College. Here J.A. Clark and his two sons, Addison and Randolph began a private school chartered in 1873 under the name of Add-Ran Christian College. Removed to Waco on December 25, 1895. Reestablished at Fort Worth in 1909 as Texas Christian University. #84

?, Thorp Springs, TX, United States

Addie M. Graham. Born in Indiana in 1843, Agnes Mary ("Addie") Kinter married Edwin Smith Graham in 1865. Upon hearing of the opportunities for land development in Texas, Graham traveled to Texas many times during the 1870s. In 1872, he and his brother, G. A., founded this town. They gave land for a county courthouse and set aside lots for churches, schools, and cemeteries. In 1879, E. S. and Addie Graham brought their children to live in the new town. Twelve years later, they moved to Spokane, Washington, where Col. Graham had other business ventures. He died there in 1899. Addie Graham returned to Graham and continued her husband's philanthropic efforts. She contributed to the building of a city auditorium, endowed a Bible teaching position in the Graham schools, and donated land on which was built a home for the aged poor of the county. In 1907, the city's first water pumping station was built to replace the individual wells and cisterns that had been used since the town's founding. The water remained untreated, however, until 1910, when Addie Graham gave the money for a filtering plant. The facility, built at this site, was in use for 75 years. Addie Graham died in 1929. Her contributions have had a lasting impact on the town's growth and development. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986 #85

Fireman's Park, FM 61, Graham, TX, United States

Adina de Zavala. As the granddaughter of Lorenzo de Zavala (1789-1836), first vice-president of the Republic of Texas, young Adina de Zavala was exposed to vivid accounts of Texas' Revolutionary and Republican past. She became a guiding force in the preservation of many of Texas' most revered historic structures and sites, including the Alamo, Mission San Francisco de Los Tejas in East Texas, and San Antonio's Spanish Governor's Palace. The "De Zavala Daughters," a women's group formed in Miss Adina in 1889, erected Texas' first historical markers and helped preserve San Antonio's Spanish missions. Her firm belief, later verified, was that remnants of Mission San Antonio de Valero, known in 1836 as the Alamo's long barracks, lay underneath the wooden exterior of buildings adjacent to the Alamo church. By 1893, as president of the De Zavala chapter of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas (DRT), Miss Adina had secured the adjacent property owner's commitment to give the chapter first purchase option. In 1908, upon hearing that the 2-story long barracks were about to be razed, Miss Adina barricaded herself inside the buildings for three days and nights in an effort that ultimately prevented their destruction. (1994) #86

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Administration Building of the Fort Concho Museum. #87

Fort Concho, between Ave. C & D, San Angelo, TX, United States

Admiral Baptist Church. Organized in 1881 with nine charter members, this church first served pioneer settlers of the Admiral community. Services were conducted in a family log cabin, under brush arbors, or in local schoolhouses until members built a sanctuary here near the turn of the century. Known early as Shiloh Baptist, the congregation adopted the community name in 1905. The church disbanded in 1968, but the building and nearby cemetery remain as reminders of Admiral, a settlement that once included stores, doctors, a gin, school, and post office. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986. Supplemental Plate: The Historic Admiral Baptist Church building, located east of the cemetery, was destroyed in a fire set by vandals in 1993. #88

?, Baird, TX, United States

Adolph Strieber. Co. G, 16th Illinois Cavalry from April 1, 1863 to August 15, 1865. Enlisted as private in Springfield, Ill., after crossing Confederate lines by walking, stagecoach and steamboat. Like many Texas Germans, he felt U.S. should be kept together. Born in Zellerfield, Germany. Came to Texas via Old Indianola with parents in 1846. Married Marie Wagenschien 1866. Pioneer merchant. Prominent citizen. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1964 #89

?, Yorktown, TX, United States

Adrian Building. Western Bungalow. Built 1915, in Girvin, by R. F. Mayse, first merchant. Moved to McCamey, 1946. Mr. and Mrs. Hal Holmes: gift. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1965. #90

US 67, in Santa Fe Park, McCamey, TX, United States

African American Education. Education for American Negro citizens of Gonzales began in the 1870s at the home of Myrtle Moses Mathis. More formalized instruction took place in the 1890s when the school occupied a 2-story community building. A brick schoolhouse was erected about 1914 on land donated by W.M. Fly and Josephine K. Peck. It was named George Edwards High School in 1922 and served 300 students and 8 teachers by 1940. Edwards High School was closed in 1964 as schools were desegregated in compliance with the federal Civil Rights Act. The school was sold in the 1970s. (1997) #91

?, Gonzales, TX, United States