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Agua Dulce. At the forks of the Agua Dulce fifteen miles southwest of San Patricio fell Dr. James Grant, Major Robert C. Morris, Captain Thomas Lewellen, Dr. Charles P. Hear,t Stephen Dennison, J.T. Howard, Joseph Smith Johnston, H. Obed Marshall, John C. McLanglin, J.W. Wentworth, and two or three other Texan volunteers who were killed in a running fight with General Jose Urrea's Mexican Cavalry March 2, 1836 #93

CR 93 off SH 44 NW of Robstown, Robstown, TX, United States

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Ahavath Sholom Hebrew Cemetery. Wishing to have their own cemetery, congregation Ahavath Sholom, the first Jewish congregation in Fort Worth, purchased a six-acre tract from the Greenwood Cemetery Association at this location and dedicated Ahavath Sholom Hebrew Cemetery in 1909. A Ladies Cemetery Society was formed in that year to oversee the upkeep of the graveyard; Rebecca Goldstein served as its initial president. The first person buried here was Charles Hurwitz in 1910. In 1929 an agreement between the congregation and the Greenwood Cemetery Association resulted in the enlargement of this Jewish cemetary. Three soldiers who perished during World War II are buried side by side in the north section of the cemetery. A large monument memorializing the millions of Jewish victims of the German Nazi Regime in World War II Europe (1939-1945) was erected by members of the congregation who lost relatives in the Holocaust. The Kornbleet Chapel, which contains seating for one hundred persons, was dedicated in 1988. The chapel is used for funeral services as well as other religious services pertaining to the cemetery. The congregation established a trust fund for the long-term maintenance of the cemetery. (1993) (1992) #94

415 N. University, Fort Worth, TX, United States

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Alamo Cenotaph. In memory of the heroes who sacrificed their lives at the Alamo, March 6, 1836, in the defense of Texas. "They chose never to surrender nor retreat; these brave hearts with flag still proudly waving, perished in the flames of immortality that their high sacrifice might lead to the founding of this Texas." #95

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

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Alamo Low Barracks and Main Gateway. Mission San Antonio de Valero, established nearby in 1718, was relocated here in 1724. By 1762, the Mission Plaza was enclosed by thick stone and adobe walls. The 11 x 14-foot main gateway was located at this site along the south wall. In 1803 Spanish cavalry from San Carlos de Parras del Alamo, Mexico, occupied the secularized mission and built one-story (low) barracks inside the south wall on each side of the main gateway. The Alamo, as the complex came to be known, was occupied in 1835 by Mexican soldiers led by Gen. Cos. They fortified the main gateway with artillery pieces and a defensive lunette, a semi-circular enclosure with deep trenches. In December 1835, Texas patriots captured the Alamo, but by Feb. 23, 1836, were under siege by an armed force led by Gen. Santa Anna. Couriers departed the Alamo through the main gateway during the siege. On March 6 Mexican troops breached the main gateway and retook the Alamo. After the assault, some Mexican military observers and local residents stated that Col. James Bowie and others died in the low barracks. The low barracks and main gateway were leveled in 1871, melding Valero Plaza on the south with the Alamo's plaza to create an open space. (1996) #96

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

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Alamo Masonic Cemetery. Chartered in 1848, Alamo Lodge Number 44, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, purchased this property in 1853-54 out of concern for the need of a burial ground for fellow Masons. The oldest remaining marked grave is that of S. Fredericca Hummel (1829-1854), a native of Germany who came to San Antonio in 1847. The first Masonic burial was for Missourian Charles Taplin, who died in 1855. One of the earliest Masonic grounds in Texas, Alamo Masonic Cemetery contains the graves of many immigrants who settled in San Antonio during the 19th and early 20 centuries. (1984) #97

1700 E. Commerce St., San Antonio, TX, United States

Portland cement6 2013
Alamo Portland and Roman Cement Company. Near this site in 1879, Englishman William Loyd discovered a blue argillaceous limestone believed to be a natural cement rock. Analysis by San Antonio druggist and chemist George H. Kalteyer confirmed the rock contained proper proportions of lime and clay to produce portland cement. Loyd and Kalteyer, along with other investors, organized the Alamo Portland and Roman Cement Company, which was chartered in January 1880. This, the first portland cement plant west of the Mississippi, began with on intermittent pot kiln. A second pot kiln was added in 1881, when the company name was changed to Alamo Cement Company. The tall stack Schoefer-type kiln was added in 1889. Cement from this plant was used in the construction of the State Capitol and the Driskill Hotel in Austin. Through the vision and leadership of Portland Cement pioneers Loyd, Kalteyer,and Charles Baumberger, who succeeded to the presidency following Kalteyer's death in 1897, the company flourished. In 1908 the plant relocated to a site later known as Cementville near Alamo Heights. The original quarry became the Japanese Sunken Gardens in Brackenridge Park. The kiln area was designated as Baumberger Plaza in 1944. (1991) #98

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

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Albert Clinton Horton. Georgia native Albert Clinton Horton came to Texas in 1834 from Alabama, where he had served in the state legislature. He established a plantation along Caney Creek in present Wharton County. In 1835, he returned to Alabama to recruit volunteers for the Texas army, and he served as colonel of a cavalry unit during the Texas revolution. (1986) #99

?, Matagorda, TX, United States

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Albert Kosub House. -- #100

4.5 mi. W of LaVernia off FM 1346, La Vernia, TX, United States

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Albert R. Mace. (April 30, 1872 - Oct. 18, 1938) A peace officer 45 years, Mace joined Texas Rangers at age 21. He became deputy sheriff in Lampasas County in 1903; later served 12 years as sheriff. He was president of the Texas Sheriffs Association, 1920; chief of police in oil boom towns of Mexia and Borger (1821-1930) and in Corpus Christi (1933-1934). Was Captain of Ranger Co. "D" (1931-1933) when the east Texas oil fields were under martial law. He died in service. Recorded--1968 #102

Off US 84,, Mexia, TX, United States

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Albert Turner Clifton House. Built in 1921 for the family of priminent Waco businessman and civic leader Albert Turner Clifton (1879-1948), this house is a fine example of the Tudor revival style of architecture. Outstanding features of the house include its steeply-pitched roof, central gable with decorative half-timbering and vergeboard, and a prominent three-bay brick and wood porch with Tudor arches. The home remained in Clifton family until 1950. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1991 #103

?, Waco, TX, United States

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Albuquerque. Near 1857 Ranch of Samuel and Martha (Hastings) McCracken. Post office, opened 1869, was named by veterans of Sibley's Civil War campaign in New Mexico. Town had businesses, school, blacksmith shop where DeWitt County Sheriff Jack Helm died (1873) of blast from gun of John Wesley Hardin. Post office closed 1883. (1972) #104

FM 1681, NW of Nixon, Nixon, TX, United States

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Alderete-Candelaria House. Although the exact building date for this adobe masonry structure is unknown, it appears to have been constructed during the 1870s for Benigno Alderete (1845-1916). Born in Ysleta (now part of El Paso), Alderete served at various times as a Texas Ranger, county commissioner, and town mayor. The residence became known as the Candelaria House after Alderete's granddaughter Ester married Alex Candelaria, whose family also had been leaders in early El Paso County history. The large "L" shaped house and courtyard originally shared the property with a corral, irrigation ditch, and agricultural field. Built with the help of the neighboring Tigua Indians, the house exhibits many examples of their construction techniques. While Alderete's descendants continued to live in parts of the structure until 1969, other parts have been used for a variety of purposes. The house served as an outbuilding for the nearby mission, as a temporary courthouse, gristmill, school, dance hall, puppet show theatre, movie house, and county office building. The style and usage of the Alderete-Candelaria House attest to the blending of Spanish, Indian, and American influences in the area. This cultural mix is an important part of El Paso County history. (1984) 1984 #105

118 S. Old Pueblo Rd., El Paso, TX, United States

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John Berlocher Building. -- #106

2313 Mechanic, Galveston, TX, United States

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Carmelo "Charles" Bertolino. (September 4, 1887 - March 8, 1960) Born in Galveston in 1887, Carmelo Bertolino was the son of Salvatore Bertolino (d. 1891) and Rosalia Trapani Bertolino (d. 1942), who immigrated to Texas from Palermo, Italy in the early 1880s. Salvatore Bertolino drowned in Galveston Bay when Carmelo was three years old. Carmelo married Mabel Cousins (1894-1937) in 1911 and became the head of a large family. He worked as a fisherman and as a baker at Graugnard's Bakery. He was an athletic man who swam in the Gulf every day until he was past 70 years of age. A volunteer lifesaver, he is credited with saving more than 500 people from drowning during his lifetime. The tragedy of that type of death had touched his own family; in addition to his father, he lost a brother and a son to accidental drownings in Galveston waters. Carmelo Bertolino was in Italy during the disastrous 1900 storm, but during the 1915 hurricane he was able to save many lives. His heroic efforts later were noted in official citations from the Texas Legislature and President Franklin D. Roosevelt. A monument in his honor was erected shortly after his death, and the Galveston City Council named 10th Street at its intersection with the seawall "Bertolino's View." Sesquicentennial of Texas Statehood 1845-1995 #107

?, Galveston, TX, United States

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Alec Simmons. Civil War soldier from Lemon Gap (7 miles northwest). Was buried here in an unmarked grave prior to 1897. Recorded, 1967 #108

FM 382 via FM 1770 NE of Winters, Winters, TX, United States

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Alex Albright. (September 22, 1861 - April 8, 1937) A pioneer American karakul breeder. Born in Nebraska; grew up in cattle business. In 1890 came to Dundee; opened a general store. Built Elm Lodge Ranch (1400 acres on Holliday Creek, 4 mi. SE). At first raised purebred Lincoln sheep. In 1910, with help of U.S. ex-President Theodore Roosevelt and the Czar of Russia, he imported valuable karakul sheep from Asia. Later his upbred flock of 1200 took prizes all over the world. Albright's first wife, Dorothy Jane Duncan, died in 1900. Second wife, Marie Sahores, assisted him in ranching business. Daughters were Zella, Ester, and Marie. (1971) Erected by Mrs. Jake Webb (Zella Albright) and Archer County Historical Survey Committee. (1971) #109

?, Dundee, TX, United States

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Alexander McKinza. In 1834 Alexander McKinza moved to Nacogdoches, Texas, from his native Alabama. During the Texas War for Independence, he joined the Sabine volunteers under Capt. Benjamin F. Bryant and fought at the battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836. McKinza married Clarissa Brewer on March 14, 1839. He had a store near Douglass until 1857 and served as Justice of the Peace for Nacogdoches County from 1853 to 1857. He settled in McLennan County about 1860. (1976) #111

?, Waco, TX, United States

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Alexander and Alma Oppenheimer Halff House. Built in 1904, this was the home of merchant, banker, rancher and civic leader Alexander Hart Halff and Alma (Oppenheimer) Halff, both members of prominent local families. This imposing residence was designed by C.A. Coughlin and Atlee B. Ayres and merges late 19th century architectural elements with early 20th century modernism. Features of the house include a pressed metal roof and boxed eaves. The family lived here until 1963. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1997 #112

601 Howard Street, San Antonio, TX, United States

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Alexander's Distillery. On this site in 1861-65, the William R. Alexander Distillery met a wartime need in Texas. May 28, 1862, Governor Francis R. Lubbock closed all Texas distilleries, to save grain. Army calls for medicinal liquor (for opiate and stimulant purposes) soon caused him to order a few, including Alexander's, re-opened. In drastic medical shortages, Texans throughout the Civil War gave such help as they could. Bandages, sewing silk, lint, polk weed, peach bark, barilla and other home medical aids went to various military units. (1964) #113

?, Salado, TX, United States

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Alfonso Steel. He was severely wounded in the Battle of San Jacinto and its last survivor. Erected by the State of Texas, 1962 #114

Off US 84, Mexia, TX, United States

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Alfred Madison Hightower. Alfred M. Hightower came to Smithfield from Illinois with his family in 1858 and became a rancher. When the debate over secession arose, Hightower opposed it, but when the Civil War began, he sided with the South. As a mounted rifleman in the Confederate Army, Hightower fought in many battles, including Elkhorn Tavern (Pea Ridge) in Arkansas, one of the biggest battles west of the Mississippi. After the War, he relocated to Kansas during the 1870s, but returned here in 1880 and continued ranching until his death. Nearby Hightower Street is named in his honor. (1991) #116

6600 Smithfield Rd., North Richland Hills, TX, United States

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Alice. In the 1880s, when the lines of the Corpus Christi, San Diego, and Rio Grande and the San Antonio and Aransas Pass railroads intersected, a new townsite was platted at the junction in what was then Nueces County. First called Bandana and then Kleberg, the town was finally named Alice (for Alice King Kleberg) when a post office was granted in 1888. Homes, business, schools, in south Texas were headquartered in Alice. P. A. Presnall was elected the first mayor in 1904. Alice became the county seat of newly created Jim Wells County in 1911. (1988) #117

?, Alice, TX, United States

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Alico Building. Designed and built by Sanguinet & Staats and Roy E. Lane, the 22-story home office of the Amicable Liife Insurance Co. was erected in 1911 as publicity for the new firm. The structure's Beaux Arts styling features rich terra cotta details on the top four floors. For many years the tallest building in the southwest, it withstood the 1953 Waco tornado. Today the Alico Building serves as a landmark in Waco and as a reminder of the city's early economic growth. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1982 #118

?, Waco, TX, United States

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All Saints' Church. Outgrowth of 1882 worship by laymen (mostly sheep-ranching Englishmen). Organized 1883 by The Rt. Rev. A.C. Garrett, pioneer Episcopal Bishop of Dallas, who listed this as "Grace Mission", with eight communicants. With some assistance from New York and other areas, the church was erected 1885 and consecrated as "All Saints" in 1886. Original bell is still in use. The buttresses, stucco finish, and parish house have been added. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1968. #119

Third and Locust St., Colorado City, TX, United States

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Alla School. In 1866 Moses and Mary Jane Hubbard and their daughter Alla moved from Missouri to Collin County, where Hubbard was a successful doctor, farmer, and one of the largest landholders in the area. Concerned with the inadequacy of the local school, the Hubbards supplemented Alla's education at home and then sent her to Pritchett Institute in Glasgow, Missouri, where she earned a degree in literature in 1880. A talented writer, Alla Hubbard returned to Texas and married Dr. B.F. Spencer in 1884, but died five years later. In 1895 her parents founded a school in her memory. Named Alla School, it was formed from the consolidation of the nearby Emerson and McWhirter school districts and was completely financed by the Hubbards. With an initial enrollment of 108, Alla School opened in 1896 with nine grades, no scholastic age limit, no tuition, and an eight-month school term. The Hubbards, aware of the benefits of a solid educational background, instituted these uncommon features at a time when there was little support for free public shools. In 1958 the Alla School merged with the Celina Independent School District. Funds from the Hubbard estate, however, continued to serve public education in the Celina Schools. (1983) #120

?, Celina, TX, United States

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Allan Jefferson Rogers. Sergeant, Co. K, Bass' Regt., 20th Texas Cav. Served in Ark., Ind. Ter., La., Texas. Born in Ala. Came to Texas in 1856. #121

FM 3371, Lost Prairie Cemetery, Lost Prairie, TX, United States

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Allen Caruthers. A veteran of San Jacinto; born in Kentucky May 31, 1804; died May 29, 1863. His wife Martha B. Caruthers born in North Carolina April 24, 1816; died July 8, 1858. #122

?, Cuero, TX, United States

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Allen Cemetery. Located on land purchased from Mr. and Mrs. John W. Whisenant, this cemetery was formally established on April 5, 1884, by the International Order of Odd Fellows, local Lodge No. 249. Encompassing almost three acres of land, the cemetery has served the Allen community for over a century. The oldest legible grave marker here is that of Rebecca L. Hamilton (d.1883), although local oral tradition holds that earlier graves may exist, including a slave burial ground in the southeast corner of the property. Tombstone inscriptions reveal evidence of early epidemics and include the names of a number of veterans of foreign wars. Robert J. Cuffman (d.1918) was killed in the Meuse-Argonne offensive in World War I. Mahlon Brackney served in the Spanish-American War. Also represented on grave markers here are notable early citizens of the community, including Permelia Ford, a pioneer settler, and Doctors H.N. Compton and William F. Wolford. The Allen Cemetery Association, organized in 1899, cares for the historic graveyard and sponsors an annual Decoration Day. (1988) #123

400 E McDermott Dr. (FM 2170), Allen, TX, United States

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Allen Chapel A.M.E. Church. This Tudor Gothic Revival sanctuary was constructed between 1912 and 1914, during the pastorate of the Rev. R.S. Jenkins, for the congregation of Allen Chapel A.M.E. Church. Designed by black architect William Sidney Pittman, who was a son-in-law of Booker T. Washington, the church building is representative of those erected by large black congregations in southern urban areas. Elements of the modified Gothic style are particularly visible in its tower and stained glass windows. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark- 1983. #124

116 Elm Street, Fort Worth, TX, United States

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Allen Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church. The oldest and largest African Methodist Episcopal Church in Fort Worth. This church organization was organized about 1870 by the Rev. Moody, pioneer circuit rider, and five area settlers. Members met in homes until facilities were built at this site soon after it was purchased in 1878. The name Allen was adopted as part of the congregational title in 1879 to honor Richard Allen, a former slave who became the first Bishop of the A.M.E. faith. Led by 29 pastors in over a century of service, Allen Chapel has played a significant role in Fort Worth's development. (1982) #125

116 Elm Street, Fort Worth, TX, United States

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Allen House. Built in 1911 as a residence for the family of Dr. Walter and Netti (Falconer) Allen, this Greek Revival style house features a giant entablature supported by paired massive Ionic columns. The house was occupied by members of the Allen family until 1956. The following year after Nettie Allen's death, her sister-in-law Hazel Bennett Falconer donated the house for use as a community and social center. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1991 #126

305 Ward St., Marlin, TX, United States

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Allen Station of the Texas Electric Railway. The Community of Allen, founded in the 1870s, experienced a surge of growth after the arrival of the Texas Traction Company in 1908. The town was a stop on the interurban line between Dallas and Sherman, serviced daily by hourly passenger cars from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. Two daily freight deliveries brought mail, produce, and railway express packages. After first operating from a farmhouse, Texas Traction bought this property in 1912 and built this brick depot in 1913. The railway became the Texas Electric in 1917, with service from Denison to Waco until it was abandoned in 1948. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986 #127

105 S. Butler St., Allen, TX, United States

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Alleyton. Oldest permanent settlement and once largest town in Colorado County. Established by the pioneer Alley family (Willliam, John, Rawson, Thomas and Abraham), all members of Austin's original 300 settlers. Terminus of the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railroad, 1860-1867. #129

?, Alleyton, TX, United States

Alleyton tx historical marker
Alleyton, C.S.A.. Born as War clouds gathered. Alleyton was a key point on the supply line of the Confederate States of American during the Civil War. It was both beginning and end of the cotton road leading to the Confederacy's back door on the Rio Grande River. By 1860 the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railroad extended from Harrisburg, near Houston. To Alleyton. As a railhead Alleyton became the site of an important cotton station and Quartermaster Depot during the War. Cotton came here from north and east Texas. From Louisiana, and from Arkansas on the Rails of the B.B.B. & C. and via wagon roads. From Alleyton the South's most precious trading commodity was carried to a point on the Colorado River across from Columbus. A point on the Colorado River across from Columbus. It was then ferried across for the start of a long, tortuous journey to the Rio Grande. The bales of cotton were hauled on big-bedded wagons and high-wheeled Mexican carts, pulled by mules, horses or oxen. The Cotton Road led to Goliad, San Patricio, the King Ranch and finally to Brownsville. Shreds of white fluff on bush and cactus marked the trail of the wagon trains. From Brownsville the cotton was taken across the river to Matamoros, Mexico and subsequently placed on board ships bound for Europe. As the only major gap in the Federal naval blockade of the Confederacy, neutral Matamoros was the place of exchange for outgoing cotton and imported munitions, clothing and medicine. When Federal forces took Vicksburg in 1863 the Mississippi River was sealed off and the Confederacy divided. The Texas-Mexico trade routes became the South's major military supply lines in the trans-Mississippi west. Alleyton was a main destination of the wagon trains returning from the Rio Grande. Rifles, swords, shirts, pants, alum, arrowroot and other items needed by soldier and civilian in the harried Confederacy were unloaded here for new destinations. #130

?, Columbus, TX, United States

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Alsatians of Texas. In 1842, Empresario Henry Castro brought his first colonists to Texas to settle land west of the Medina River. Most of the immigrants were from the Rhine River area of Europe. Many claimed the province of Alsace, on the border of France and Germany, as their homeland. The Alsatian colonists brought with them their combined French and German heritage, which has left a distinctive mark on this area of the state. In 1844, Castro laid out a townsite, which the settlers chose to name Castroville. It became the center of Alsatian culture in Texas. The houses, European in style, are primarily single-story dwellings of cut limestone, mortared with adobe, and white-washed. Over the years, farming has been the major occupation of people in the area, as it was in Alsace. The Alsatian immigrants and their descendants have made a distinct impression on area politics, holiday customs, cusine, and religion. Winemaking, using grapes grown along the Medina River, is another early tradition that has continued over the years. The history of Alsatians in Texas is a reflection of ethnic and cultural diversity in the state's rich heritage. (1985) #131

?, Castroville, TX, United States

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Alta Vista Apartments. Constructed in 1931 for the Gaskill-Hodgson Company, this Mediterranean Style structure is the oldest apartment building in Port Isabel. A survivor of numerous coastal storms and hurricanes, the complex originally consisted of three each one-bedroom, two-bedroom, and efficiency apartments. Prominent features of the two-story stucco building include its asymmetrical massing, arched-entry porches, covered balconies, and red tile roof. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1988 #132

700 Polk St, Port Isabel, TX, United States

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Alta Vista Hotel, Site of. Colonel Elihu Harrison Ropes (1845-1898) came to Corpus Christi in 1888 with grand ideas for the town's development and promotion. With financial backing from eastern investors, he sought to make Corpus Christi a deepwater port, to build a railroad between the port and the lower Rio Grande Valley, and to develop a large suburb three miles south of what was then the city limit. Within about five years, his eastern investors withdrew their support, and Ropes left Corpus Christi having attained few of his goals. The Alta Vista Hotel, once located on the adjacent property, was a part of Ropes' plan for development of his suburb, known as the Cliffs. He acquired the land in 1888 and hired young San Antonio architect James Riely Gordon to design the hotel. The Alta Vista was a three story frame building with 106 guest rooms. The hotel was completed about 1893 but did not open for business because of Ropes' departure from the city. The Alta Vista was operated briefly as a hotel during the early 1900's under the direction of J.J. Copley and the Alta Vista Hotel Co. Later abandoned, the hotel burned on June 9, 1927. Although the landmark is gone, its history is a reminder of the dreams that early promoters such as E.H. Ropes had for the city. (1985) #133

Alta Plaza and Ocean Dr., Corpus Christi, TX, United States

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Altgelt-Isbell House. [no text - RTHL medallion only] #134

226 King William St., San Antonio, TX, United States

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Althea School. Thompson F. Fowler and his family were among the earliest permanent settlers of this area. A rural community which built up around the family-owned cotton gin became known as Fowler's Gin. A community school, established about 1894, was consolidated with the nearby Alligator School in 1897 to form Fowler Common County Line School District No. 111. In 1900, the community was granted a United States Post Office under the name Althea. Although the post office closed four years later, the school was re-named Althea School in 1908. A new schoolhouse built in 1910 was destroyed by fire in 1916. Althea was consolidated with other area schools in 1917 to form the New Hope School District. Althea withdrew from the consolidation in 1926, however, and remained an independent school until its final closing in 1942. The Althea School building was sold in 1945, and the school was officially annexed to the Bartlett School System in 1948. Although sporadic in its periods of operation, Althea School provided educational opportunities to generations of rural schoolchildren. (1991) #135

?, Bartlett, TX, United States

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Altoga Cemetery. This cemetery has served the Altoga area since 1881, including what was once the Johnson community to the south and the Ardath community to the west. The earliest recorded burials are those of three-year-old Ida Leomy Parker in July 1881 and Elizabeth Humbard Mantooth in November 1881. William Mantooth donated one and one-third acres of land for the cemetery in 1894. Another two and one-third acres were later added to the site. A tabernacle to be used for funerals was erected in August 1914. It was built by local men with funds raised by the Woodmen of the World with events such as ice cream socials and pie suppers. The tabernacle is still used each May for observance of Decoration Day. The cemetery contains more than 720 graves, including about 40 unmarked graves. Buried here are early settlers to the area, their families, and veterans of the Civil War (both Confederate and Union soldiers), World War I, World War II, and the Korean conflict. The Altoga Cemetery Association, formed in 1971, maintains the grounds through a perpetual care trust. The graveyard continues to serve the area as it has for more than a century. (1997) #136

?, McKinney, TX, United States

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Alvarado. Early settler David Mitchell established a trading post near here in the late 1840s, about the time colonists of W. S. Peters' empresario grant began to settle the area. Colonist William Balch, who settled on an area land grant in 1852, was later to become known as the "Father of Alvarado" for his efforts in having the townsite surveyed in 1854, establishing the first general merchandise stores on the square, and for donating land for a cemetery, school, and union church. The town, named for Alvarado, Mexico, soon boasted a post office, homes, businesses, and churches. A community school established about 1855 became The Alvarado Masonic Institute in 1875. Rail lines extended through Alvarado by the Missouri Pacific Railroad in 1881 and by the Chicago, Texas, and Mexican Central Railroad in 1884 spurred a local economic boom. By 1885 Alvarado had several churches, two schools, two gins, an opera house, a bank, a newspaper, and a population of about 2,000. The Masonic Institute became the Alvarado Normal Institute in 1899 and Alvarado High School in 1908-09. A large jail/town hall erected at this site in the mid-1880s was removed in the 1920s and replaced with a garden arrangement; a gazebo was added later. (1994) #137

?, Alvarado, TX, United States

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Alvord Lodge No. 512, A. F. & A. M.. Prominent founding member R. W. Johnson led efforts to organize Audubon Masonic Lodge No. 512 in the village of Audubon (7 miles northeast) in 1879. The lodge moved to Alvord in 1886 where members built a second floor onto a schoolhouse to use as a lodge hall. The name was officially changed to Alvord Lodge in 1890, and in 1991 a new 2-story stone lodge hall was erected at this site. The Masons met on the second floor and a local bank rented the first floor until 1984. The lodge continues a tradition of public outreach to the Alvord community. #138

113 N. Wickham Street, Alvord, TX, United States

Bishop%27s palace marker
The Bishop's Palace. Built, 1886-1893, by Col. Walter Gresham, civic leader and U. S. Congressman. Nicholas J. Clayton was architect. One of the most lavish and massive homes in U. S., house is a Victorian adaptation of renaissance style. Silver and onyx mantel in music room won first prize, 1886, at New Orleans Exposition. Mrs. Gresham painted murals, ceilings. Catholic Diocese bought home, 1923, and one room into chapel with stained glass windows. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1967 #139

1402 Broadway, Galveston, TX, United States

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Amarillo. County seat, Potter County; founded in 1887. Incorporated 1892. Named for Arroyo Amarillo, Spanish name of nearby creek. Transportation, financial, cultural, and medical center. Gateway to: Alibates Flint Quarry National Monument, Lake Meredith, Palo Duro State Park, Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Boys Ranch. (1965). #140

8000 US 66 W, The Care Center, Amarillo, TX, United States

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Amarillo. Named for Arroyo Amarillo, nearby creek given its designation by Spaniards in early days. In 1887, when the Fort Worth and Denver City Railroad was building through this region, a group represented by J. T. Berry platted the town (1 Mi. W.). The founders were merchants of Colorado City (250 Mi. SE), establishing convenient trade facilities for their South Plains customers. Later (Aug. 30) that year, Potter County was organized and Amarillo was chosen county seat by 38 LX and 15 Frying Pan cowboys as electors. In 1889 heavy rains and other inducements were factors influencing residents to move to this new townsite addition promoted by J. F. Glidden and H. B. Sanborn, owners of the Frying Pan Ranch (headquarters 16 Mi. W). In 1892 Glidden traded his interest in the city for Sanborn's interest in the ranch. In the years 1892-1897, Amarillo was the largest rural shipping point for cattle in the nation. When a rail line to serve the South Plains was proposed, Amarillo and Washburn (15 Mi. SE) were rivals for the junction. Amarillo won, through efforts of city developer Sanborn. When construction began in 1898, Amarillo's future was assured: it was to be the commercial center of the Texas Panhandle. (1970) (1970). #141

600 S Buchanan St., Civic Center grounds, Amarillo, TX, United States

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Amarillo. County seat, Potter County; founded in 1887. Incorporated 1892. Named for Arroyo Amarillo, Spanish name of nearby creek. Transportation, financial, cultural, and medical center. Gateway to: Alibates Flint Quarry National Monument, Lake Meredith, Palo Duro State Park, Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Boys Ranch. (1965). #142

?, Amarillo, TX, United States

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Amarillo. County seat, Potter County; founded in 1887. Incorporated 1892. Named for Arroyo Amarillo, Spanish name of nearby creek. Transportation, financial, cultural and medical center. Gateway to: Alibates Flint Quarry National Monument, Lake Meredith, Palo Duro State Park, Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Boys Ranch. #143

?, Amarillo, TX, United States

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Amarillo Helium Plant. This plant, operated by the United States Bureau of Mines, was the first to produce helium from the extensive helium resources in the Texas Panhandle. From 1929 until 1943, it furnished almost all of the world's supply of helium. Operating around the clock, the plant extracts helium by liquefying the natural gas and separating helium from it at temperatures 300 degrees below zero. The natural reserves in these fields and in extensions into adjacent states contain more than 95 percent of the world's known supply of helium. This is also the site of the world renowned research center which provides fundamental data on the production and uses of helium. Helium is used for a variety of purposes: lighter-than-air craft, low-temperature research, shielded-arc welding; and in national defense, nuclear energy programs and space exploration. (1965). #144

?, Amarillo, TX, United States

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Amarillo Livestock Auction. Established to serve the first permanent industry in the Texas Panhandle--ranching. Now famed for handling more cattle than any other commission auction company in the United States. The years 1874-1878 saw Indians expelled, buffalo herds exterminated, and ranches established in the region. Longhorns were trailed to Dodge City for shipment. After railroads came, ranchmen rode the cattle trains to care for herds en route to market. Railroad construction across the Texas Panhandle in 1887 established Amarillo as the largest rural cattle shipping point in the nation (1892-1897). More efficient handling began in 1904 with the founding by O.H. Nelson, Al Popham, and associates of the Western Stockyards, predecessor of Amarillo Livestock Auction. This livestock commission market opened in 1935 with the sale of 36 cattle and 21 horses by Jack Coulter, Auctioneer, and Virgil Light, Manager. In 1940 Jay Taylor and Eddie Johnson bought the Western Stockyards and constructed the present sales ring, incorporated 1945 as Amarillo Livestock Auction Company. Marketing was revolutionized. Annual sales exceed 400,000 cattle valued at more than $78,000,000. (1970) #145

100 South Manhattan St., Amarillo, TX, United States

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Amarillo Natatorium ("The Nat"). The Natatorium, an open air building surrounding a swimming pool that measured 36' by 101', opened in July 1922. "The Nat" was enclosed in 1923 for year round use. In 1926 the building was converted into a dance hall with 10,000 square feet of maple flooring covering the pool area. "The Nat" also provided dining and at its peak employed 40 staff members. Well known bands traveling along Route 66 often stopped here to entertain. Though closed as a public dance hall in the 1960's, "The Nat" served the Amarillo area as a significant social center for decades. (1996) #146

2705 W 6th, Amarillo, TX, United States