Amasa Turner. Star and Wreath Served as a private, officer and recruiter in the Army of Texas, 1835-36. Erected by the State of Texas, 1962 #147

?, Gonzales, TX, United States

America's Second Transcontinental Railroad. (Joined Here in 1881) Great achievement in American history. Victory for statesmen, including Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun, who early as 1845 had supported in the United States Congress the idea of a transcontinental railroad. This was effected in 1869, but a need remained-- as advocated in the Congress-- for a southern route. In 1869 the Southern Pacific began constructing such a line eastward from the west coast. In 1871 the Texas & Pacific began building a line, under a special Act of Congress, from east Texas to southern California. They ran a dramatic race which reached its climax as construction crews for the roads neared this site. Southern Pacific reached Sierra Blanca on Nov. 25, 1881-- while crews of the T. & P. were 10 miles to the east of here. On Nov. 26, 1881, an agreement was reached by Jay Gould, for the Texas & Pacific, and Collis P. Huntington, for the Southern Pacific, whereby in Sierra Blanca the roads would "approach, meet, and form one continuous line to the Pacific Ocean." The lines were joined here on Dec. 15,1881, and on Dec. 16 transcontinental service was inaugurated. (1968) #148

?, Sierra Blanca, TX, United States

Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration of the American Declaration of Independence. Most of the "Old Three Hundred" settlers in Stephen F. Austin's first Texas Colony in the early 1820s came from the United States and were proud of their Anglo-America Heritage. Austin discouraged any display of American loyalties which might anger the Mexican authorities or violate colonization laws. Many customs persisted, however, including observance of July Fourth as American Independence Day. On July 4, 1826, settlers around Beason's Crossing, nucleus of the present town of Columbus, planned a barbecue to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the American Declaration of Independence. No doubt, many colonists traveled long distances for this important gathering. West of the Colorado River in Green DeWittt's Colony, a small group set out from Gonzales on July 2 to attend the barbecue at Beason's. While camped for the night, they were attacked by Indians but managed to escape. Returning to Gonzales, they found their homes plundered and one man killed. The other settlers were visiting at a nearby cabin and escaped the Indian raid. The survivors then proceeded to the safety of older settlements along the the Colorado. (1976) #149

?, Columbus, TX, United States

American Legion Hall. Donna Border Post No. 107. Dedicated 1920. First American Legion Hall built or owned by any post in the world. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1964 #150

316 S. Main, Donna, TX, United States

Amity Cemetery. When 14-year-old Charles Farley died in Feb. 1878, his parents buried him near their farmhouse, as this frontier locality had no cemetery at the time. Three months later Fannie Nichols (1875-78) died and was buried nearby. The Farleys then donated an acre of land as a community graveyard. The neighbors built an adjacent brush arbor for funerals and general gatherings. In the summer of 1878, Baptists organized a church, naming it Amity (friendship). Before erecting their own buildings, Baptists and Methodists held services in the brush arbor or at Amity School (1 mi. NW). William H. Lindley (1840-1913) bought land south of the Farley Farm in 1885. When new surveys placed the cemetery on his land, Lindley deeded the burial ground to the public. Later his son-in-law, George Brown, gave an additional acre to be used if needed. A large tabernacle with permanent fixtures replaced the brush arbor and was used for funerals until 1938 or 1939, when it was severely damaged by a storm. Free-will donations have maintained the cemetery since 1951. A "First Sunday in June Singing" which Amity Baptist Church originated in 1897 now serves as an annual memorial day and homecoming. By 1978 Amity Cemetery has nearly 400 graves. (1978) #151

?, Comanche vicinity, TX, United States

Amon B. King. #152

Kings Park, Osage and Purisima St., Refugio, TX, United States

Amon Carter Riverside High School and Riverside ISD. A community school system known as Trinity Bend existed as early as 1876 in what is now the Riverside neighborhood of Fort Worth. Classes were held in a one-room schoolhouse built by Dr. Eagle, a retired physician. The Pendleton District was created for this area in 1884, and the name Riverside was adopted fifteen years later. After the City of Fort Worth annexed the Riverside Community in 1922, the school became part of the Fort Worth educational system. In 1941 the school at this site was named for Fort Worth businessman and philanthropist Amon G. Carter. (1983) #153

3301 Yucca Ave., Fort Worth, TX, United States

Amon G. Carter. Born in Wise County, Texas, on December 11, 1879, Amon Giles Carter left home at an early age and worked at a variety of odd jobs around the country before his arrival in Fort Worth in 1905. Carter became the advertising manager of the "Fort Worth Star", which published its first issue on February 1, 1906. Thus began a career in journalism that by 1925 had taken him to the position of president and publisher of the "Fort Worth Star-Telegram," the newspaper with the largest circulation in Texas for many years. Carter's involvement in a wide variety of interests left its mark on many Texas institutions. In 1921, he authorized the purchase of equipment that resulted in the establishment of WBAP Radio in Fort Worth. An aviation enthusiast, Carter brought numerous early aviators to Fort Worth to demonstrate their skills and helped attract aviation industry to the area. His promotion of Fort Worth and the entire West Texas region attracted widespread attention. Much of the fortune he earned in oil was spent on philanthropic interests, including establishment of the Amon Carter Museum as a gift to Fort Worth. Amon G. Carter died in Fort Worth on June 23, 1955, and is buried in Greenwood Cemetery. (1985) #154

400 W. 7th, Fort Worth, TX, United States

Amphion and Amphion Cemetery. Amphion traces its beginning to the establishment of Atascosa County's first courthouse which is believed to have been constructed near this site at the county seat of Navatasco in 1857. Amphion, thought to have been named after a figure in Greek mythology, was located within the 17,000-acre ranch of Jose Antonio Navarro, a prominent local rancher and signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence. Amphion was at one time a thriving community with several general stores, a hotel, post office, blacksmith shop, cotton gin, tannery, churches, fraternal lodges and a school. Amphion Cemetery was established about 1870 at this site on land donated by Roy Jenkins and Frank Lozano. Although the earliest recorded gravesite is that of Laura Underwood (d.1891) there is a gravestone with the year 1800 inscribed on its surface that local tradition claims marks the grave of a young boy killed by indians. This cemetery contains the graves of at least two veterans of the American Civil War. When railroad lines were built through Atascosa County in 1907 and 1927 along routes that bypassed Amphion, business activity declined and the community eventually dissolved. Virtually all that remains of the former town of Amphion is this cemetery. (1992) #155

?, Poteet, TX, United States

An 1890 Bank Building. Irish quarrymen mined stone for this Victorian structure on Bower's Hill (2 mi. N), near home of bank director, L. J. Bower. With its fine quality masonry and woodwork, the bank building added dignity to the Courthouse Square. An abstract firm and land office occupied the upper floor. After drought in its north Texas and Indian Territory trade areas, the bank failed in 1895. In 1906 W. I. Tidwell and son bought the property for a retail store. It was sold to W. A. Corbett in 1933 and to Mr. and Mrs. Rupert Roach in 1975. The lower front facade was last changed in the 1950s. (1976) #156

500 Oak St., Graham, TX, United States

Ancient Rocks Boundary. The mountains toward the east are limestone reef beds deposited in the Cretaceous and Permian seas about 135 million years ago and 250 million years ago; respectively. The limestone reefs overlie deformed rocks in the Ouachita Fold Belt, which is visible along the highway to the east, near Marathon. To the south are younger limestone beds deposited about 125 to 135 million year ago. They also rest above the Ouachita Fold Belt (so named for the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas-Oklahoma, where formation was first studied by geologists). Toward the west, northwest, and southwest are layers of lava and associated volcanic rocks 25 to 35 million years old. These were thrust upward, into and over most of the older sedimentary rock layers. Many of the molten rock masses cooled and hardened underneath, while vast quantities poured over the surface in the form of lava flows and volcanic debris up to a mile in thickness. Subsequent erosion has sculptured these highlands by removing much of the younger volcanic rock, and cutting deeply into the older sea deposits. Out of the lower, ingenuus hills grow yucca and other cacti, contrasting with juniper and pinon on the higher elevations. (1970) #157

?, Alpine, TX, United States

The Anderson House. This Victorian residence with distinctive second floor windows was designed by Wichita Falls architect Joseph C. Pate. Built for local businessman Guy Dewitt Anderson and his wife, it was completed in 1907. A noted civic leader, Mrs. Anderson also served as a commissioner for the Texas Centennial, 1936. Oilman W. E. Connors bought the house in 1918 and lived here until his death 20 years later. Built overlooking the city, it reflects the earlier prominence of the surrounding neighborhood. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1980 #158

912 Burnett, Wichita Falls, TX, United States

Anderson Place, Old. Built 1860 at edge of an old Indian campground, by James B. Anderson, one of town's founders and a school trustee in Salado. Community leaders, lawyers and doctors have lived here. Boarding here in 1883 while a student at Old Salado College was James E. Ferguson, 1915-1917 Governor of Texas--and husband of the first woman Governor. Under panelling and cedar walls. Window glass is hand blown. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1965 #159

35 Main St., Salado, TX, United States

Andrew A. Rasmussen. A native of Denmark, Andrew Rasmussen (1858-1933) came to the United States at the age of 13 and began a maritime career that lasted for 60 years. Following the shipwreck of his schooner, the "Dorio and Doria," in 1885, Rasmussen joined Calhoun County's Saluria Life Saving Service, which had rescued his crew. By 1889, he was placed in charge of the station, which later became part of the U.S Coast Guard. Capt. Rasmussen and his wife, Theresa Amelia (Smith), built a home at this site in 1911. They are buried in the Port Lavaca Cemetery. (1985) #160

?, Port O'Connor, TX, United States

Andrew Jackson Potter. (1830 - 1895) Born in Missouri. Orphaned at age 10, was a jockey, gambler, ruffian. Fought in Mexican War, 1846-47. Was a Texas Ranger later. Converted in a camp meeting, he learned to write and became a Methodist minister. Served 4 years in the Confederate Army. Like any chaplain, had pay and rations of a private. In camp he conducted regular religious services, counseled, taught men to read and write, handled mail, visited the sick. Once whipped an editor for libeling the Army. In battle line, until firing order came he had Bible in hand, preaching to his men "on the brink of eternity". Fought to end of battle, then took down from lips of dying men words to family or friends; prayed for the passing soul; aided the wounded. After war, with Bible in left hand, pistol in right, preached 30 years on Texas frontiers. Gave many a wild town its first sermon, sometimes preaching in a settlement's only public building-- a saloon. Founded several churches. From enforcing respect for his work with fists and guns, was called "The Fighting Parson". At home he owned on this site, 1868-83, several of his 15 children were born. He died in his pulpit, and was buried in Caldwell County. (1965) #161

?, Boerne, TX, United States

Andrew Jackson Sowell. Star and Wreath Born in Tennessee 1815; came to Texas about 1829; served in the Army of Texas; a courier from the Alamo, he left the fortress just before it fell to hurry reinforcements and supplies; died about 1882. His wife Lucinda Turner Sowell, born 1827 - died 1883. Erected by the State of Texas 1956 #162

?, Seguin, TX, United States

Andrew Neill Church House. Built 1854; of Parks Concrete, invented by Dr. Joseph E. Parks, nationally-known chemist who moved here from Kentucky. Although erected by Baptists, who organized their church, 1851, house was known as Neill's, as he donated the site. Mrs. Neill, a member of the Joseph E. Parks family, was a Baptist. Neill, a civic leader, was a Presbyterian. His denomination also met here. After its term as church, structure has had commercial and residential usage. #163

?, Seguin, TX, United States

Andrew Ponton. In memory of Andrew Ponton, Alcalde Author of the historic letter written on Sept. 26, 1835, in reply to Mexico's demand for the colonists' cannon at Gonzales. One of the defenders of Gonzales, October 2, 1835. #164

?, Gonzales, TX, United States

Andrew Zumwalt. A San Jacinto veteran, born September 1, 1817; died November 1, 1886. #165

?, Gonzales, TX, United States

Original Townsite of Andrews. Founded when Andrews County was organized in 1910, on land owned by Robert Madison Means (b. 1878). With his father, J. S. Means, "Bob" Means began homesteading here in 1899 and organized an abstract company in 1909. When Andrews battled Shafter City to acquire county seat, Means donated lots to local cowboys so they could vote; helped win election. Married Atwood Wilder, 1910; was county clerk, 1918-1922; civic leader throughout life. Town has grown through many gifts of real estate and funds from Means, who retired after finding oil on his land in 1934. (1970) #166

700 W. Broadway (SH 176), Andrews, TX, United States

Andrews County. Created August 21, 1876, organized May 11, 1910. Named for Richard Andrews killed at the Battle of Concepcion, October 28, 1835, the first man to fall in the Texas revolution. County seat, Andrews. #167

?, Andrews, TX, United States

Andrews County Discovery Well. C. E. Ogden No. 1, producing 200 barrels a day from San Andres lime formation was brought in, Dec. 1929, by Deep Rock Oil Co.--the Andrews County discovery well and first of 730 wells in Fuhrman-Masco oil field. Bought, Feb. 1932, by Tripplehorn brothers, of Fort Worth. Has now pumped for more than 35 years. Since 1956, Andrews has been top producing county in Texas and U. S. Fuhrman-Masco field has produced 55 million barrels of oil--its contribution to total of more than a billion barrels for Andrews County in May, 1965. (1965) #168

?, Andrews, TX, United States

Ann Waggoner Hall. #169

Unknown, Fort Worth, TX, United States

Anneville School. Located on 3-acres donated in 1883 by E. M. Curtner, N. E. Young, P. H. and N. C. Neal for a cemetery, school, and church. First school (a 2-story building) was 30 yards west of cemetery. First church was about 300 yards south of the cemetery. About 1913 a new school was erected on original school site. In 1930 the school district consolidated with Boyd District. The structure was then used as a church until it burned, 1959. Anneville, one-mile south, had 2 stores, a post office, gin, gristmill, and other businesses. It was probably named in honor of Mrs. Annie Davis, early settler. #170

CR 4371, SW of Decatur, Decatur, TX, United States

Annie Riggs Hotel. Fort Stockton's first hotel of significance. Built 1900. Adobe, with "gingerbread" trim. Large verandas, dining room, parlors, guest rooms. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1966. #171

301 S Main, Fort Stockton, TX, United States

Ansgar Evangelical Lutheran Church and Cemetery. The Danish Folk Society obtained a land option from the Texas Land and Cattle Company and helped 93 Danish families from the midwest establish the Danevang Cooperative Settlement here in the early 1890s. The settlers, strong adherents of the Lutheran religion, organized an evangelical Lutheran congregation in 1895 with the help of the Rev. F. L. Grundtvig. Worship services were first held in the home of Mads and Maren Andersen. Early pastors came from Denmark and held services in the Danish language. The congregation erected a meeting hall at this site in 1895. A sanctuary made of native pine and cypress was erected here in 1909. A painting of St. Ansgar baptizing a child was placed inside the new church building and a 1700-pound bell, which could be heard four to five miles away, was placed in the church steeple. The sanctuary was destroyed in a 1945 storm and replaced with an army chapel which the congregation reassembled at this site. The first recorded interment was that of Maren Andersen in 1895. The cemetery, maintained by a board established in 1965, contains three former pastors and veterans of wars ranging from the Civil War to World War II among its more than 500 burials. (1994) #172

CR 426, Danevang, TX, United States

Anson Opera House. Built 1907 by A.W . Johnson and Dr. D. Williams, with Thomas Vetch, contractor. House was site for diverse programs: stock company and Chautaugua productions such as "East Lynn" and "The Klansman" (for which Sheriff Tom Hudson's horse was borrowed and led on stage); "Perils of Pauline" and other silent moving pictures; a state championship wrestling match in era of local pugilist Boomer Moore; and Anson High School's first (1909) graduation. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1963 #173

1120 11th St., Anson, TX, United States

Antelope Cemetery. Established as early as 1882 (date of the oldest tombstone). Site was sold to Antelope Methodist Church in 1890 by Texas Land & Mortgage Company. The church deeded tract to the Antelope Cemetery Association in 1954. W. R. Hill gave an additional 2-acre tract in 1955. (1969) #174

?, Antelope, TX, United States

Antelope United Methodist Church. The Rev. Isaac Newton Crutchfield organized this congregation in 1879 as the Antelope Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Charter members were Mollie Edwards, James and Sarah Nicholas, and W. L. Eliza, and Emma Patton. A Sunday School program was established as early as 1887. Materials for the church building were hauled by wagon from the nearest railheads in Graham and Henrietta. The structure was shared with the local Baptist congregation until their own sanctuary was completed. (1985) #175

?, Antelope, TX, United States

Anvil Park Ranch. Begun 1891 by blacksmith J. C. Studer who came from Kansas in 1886. His occupation inspired Anvil brand and name of ranch. Ran only purebred cattle after 1919. Drew top cattle buyers. Spread grew from two sections to 5,000 acres. Famous for annual professional rodeo 1918 to 1941. Attracted top cowboys from throughout nation. Many stars of rodeo world started here. As many as 8,000 visitors viewed 3-day performances. Ranch was sold 1951 to Texas Parks & Wildlife Commission for game breeding purposes. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1967. #176

?, Canadian, TX, United States

Aqueduct. Built by the Franciscan friars in 1731, the stone aqueduct was used to carry the water from the San Antonio River to irrigate the lands in the vicinity of Mission San Francisco de la Espada. The aqueduct is still in an excellent state of preservation and still in use after more than 200 years. The massive round arches that span the Piedras Pintas Creek, though only a few feet high, resemble the arches of the Roman aqueducts built by the Caesars. It is only structure of its kind in this locally that remains today. It is said to be the only aqueduct of its kind in the United States. A park has been developed by the San Antonio Conservation Society to provide a proper setting for this small monument to the faith and ingenuity of man. A stone house on the property is known to date from the Spanish era. #177

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Aranama College. Named for 18th century Indian converts of Mission Espiritu Santo de Zuniga. A men's college. Founded 1852 by Western Presbytery of Texas. Used buildings of old mission plus funds given by Goliad. Taught Latin, Greek, geography, surveying, bookkeeping, writing, reading, elementary and higher mathematics, English grammar and orthography. Closed--like most of Texas' 25 colleges--after the Civil War began (1861) and most students joined the Confederate Army. Had its buildings wrecked in the great storm of 1886. (1965) #178

?, Goliad, TX, United States

Aransas County. Created out of the coastal portion of Refugio County in 1871, Aransas County is the second smallest county in Texas. Within its boundaries are three bays of the Gulf of Mexico: Copano, St. Charles, and Aransas. The area was the site of early Indian inhabitation and Spanish exploration, as well as Anglo colonization efforts of the 1830s and 1840s. Aransas County communities are supported by such industries as fishing, agriculture, off-shore oil production, bird watching, and tourism. The county is home to the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, created in 1937. (1990) #179

301 N. Live Oak, Rockport, TX, United States

Aransas County. Created September 18, 1871 from Refugio County, organized in 1871 with Rockport as the county seat. Named for the river Nuestra Senora de Aranzazu. (1936) #180

?, Rockport, TX, United States

Bolivar Point. In 1815 Colonel Henry Perry established a military camp here as part of a plan to invade Spanish Texas. In 1816 Galveston-based privateer Louis-Michel de Aury forced shiploads of captured African Slaves to walk from this point to New Orleans along old Indian Trails. Aury is credited with naming the point after South American liberator Simon Bolivar. While commanding a filibuster to win Texas independence, James Long established Fort Las Casas on Bolivar Point in 1820-21. His wife, Jane Herbert (Wilkinson), gave birth to a daughter, Mary James, in December 1821 at the fort. Mary James Long is often referred to as the first Anglo child born in Texas. A lighthouse, erected here by the Federal government in 1852 and later dismantled by Confederate soldiers during the Civil War, was rebuilt after the war. Many area residents sought shelter within the lighthouse during the damaging storms of 1900 and 1915. The Gulf and Interstate Railroad was completed from Beaumont to Bolivar Point in 1896. A boon to peninsula farmers, the railroad was destroyed in the 1900 storm, then rebuilt in 1903. Ferry service, purchased by the Texas Highway Department in 1933, continues to provide free public access to Galveston Island. (1995) #181

?, Port Bolivar, TX, United States

Gail Borden, Jr.. Site of the home 1837-1851, of Gail Borden, Jr. pioneer surveyor, newspaper editor and inventor of a process for condensing milk, which he discovered while living here in 1840. Born November 9, 1801. Died September 2, 1874. #182

?, Galveston, TX, United States

Site of Aransas Hotel. Built in 1889 by civic leader and politician John H. Traylor, the Aransas Hotel covered this city block. The three-story structure, a major tourist attraction in Rockport, had about 100 rooms and a massive open dining room with a 200 person capacity. Guests were entertained by orchestras, plays, a mounted bird display, and beach facilities. They could also cruise in Traylor's yacht, or tour in surreys from the livery stable. Remodeled and named the Del Mar in the mid-1890s, it was sold in 1910. Deteriorated by 1906 and unused during World War I, the hotel was destroyed by fire in 1919. (1996) #183

?, Rockport, TX, United States

Aransas Pass Light Station. Construction of 67-foot tower was started in 1855. The French lens was lighted in 1856, to mark natural Gulf pass to Aransas and Corpus Christi Bays by way of Lydia Ann Channel -- named for the daughter of the first keeper. During Civil War, Confederates (in 1863) buried lens for safety before damaging tower to avert use of light by Federal forces. The auxiliary structures were rebuilt after 1919 hurricane. One of original Texas stations of U.S. Lighthouse Service (merged into the Coast Guard in 1939), this light was decommissioned in 1952 after pass shifted southward. (1973) INCISE ON BASE: Lighthouse not open to public. INCISE ON BACK OF MARKER: Restored in 1972 by Charles C. Butt #184

On Harbor Island, 2 mi. NE of east end of island, private and accessible only by boat, Port Aransas, TX, United States

Aransas Pass, C.S.A.. Aransas Pass, the natural inlet (3 miles east) to Aransas Bay, separates San Jose and Mustang Islands. These islands are part of a chain of barrier islands which extend along the entire length of Texas' Coastal Mainland. At the beginning of the civil war countless small vessels transported confederate supplies up and down the Texas and northern Mexican Coast virtually undisturbed by federal naval forces. Cotton destined for foreign markets moved freely through Aransas Pass. By early 1861 a union blockade had halted trafficking by confederate vessels beyond the barrier islands. However, confederate supplies inside the barrier chain continued and inlets such as Aransas Pass became sites of increasingly strategic military value. The Aransas Pass area came under the control of Federal Captain J.W. Kittredge's Naval Forces until his capture in September 1862. In November 1863 a massive federal force gained control of the south Texas Coast from the Rio Grande to Matagorda Bay. Eventually, Federal Forces lost control of the mainland behind Aransas Pass and in June 1864 withdrew from the area. Afterward, confederate ships successfully eluded the federal blockade and delivered vital supplies to the confederacy by way of Aransas Pass. Sesquicentennial of Texas Statehood 1845-1995. #185

SH 361 and Ferry Landing in Roberts Point Park, Port Aransas, TX, United States

Arcadius Steinle House. A native of Hettingen, Prussia, and a mason by trade, Arcadius Steinle emigrated to the U.S. in 1844 and moved to Castroville the next year. In 1847, he wed Marie Ann Dreyer and began construction of this home, where they reared six children. Arcadius died in 1858, and in 1858 Marie wed his brother, Franz. To the union were born five more children. The home later passed to son Henry Steinle, and it remained in the family until 1946. Built in phases to accommodate the growing family, it is a vernacular, side-gable house of stucco over rubble stone and a rear ell of timber frame and stone. Features include a central entry flanked by paired windows. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1962 #186

1416 Florella St, Castroville, TX, United States

Archeological Sites at Mackenzie Reservoir and Tule Canyon. Before this area was covered by Mackenzie Reservior, evidence of human occupancy was found at 77 recorded archeological sites. The earliest artifacts date back 10,000 years to a bison kill. Prehistoric occupancy is indicated by burial sites, shallow hearths, and stone tools. Gun flints, glass beads, and metal objects confirm 18th century European contact. By 1874 Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie's 4th Cavalry had driven the Indians from the Tule Canyon area which had been a lush grazing ground for buffalo and antelope. (1979) Incise in base: Marker Sponsor: Briscoe County Historical Commission - 1979 #187

?, Silverton, TX, United States

Archer City Methodist Church. This congregation began as a mission in 1880, the same year Archer City was organized. The earliest pastors, including the Rev. D. D. Duncan and the Rev. I. N. Crutchfield, were circuit riders who also served neighboring counties. Members of Archer City Methodist Church constructed their first sanctuary in 1889 and built new facilities in later years as they grew in numbers. The church became a full-time, self-supporting member of the North Texas Conference in 1912. Throughout its history the congregation has provided significant service to the community. (1985) #188

224 S. Center, Archer City, TX, United States

Archer County. A part of the Peters Grant, 1841; Created January 22, 1858; Organized July 27, 1880; Named in honor of Dr. Branch Tanner Archer 1790-1856; Texas Commissioner to the United States, 1835, Member of Congress, Secretary of War of the Republic of Texas. First permanent settlement, 1874; First railroad, 1890; Archer City, the county seat. (1936, 1986) #189

?, Archer City, TX, United States

Archer County Copper Mines. The civilized world first heard of copper in this area from Texas Rangers after an 1860 campaign against Comanches on the Pease River, about 100 miles to the northwest. The Ranger Captain, Lawrence S. ("Sul") Ross, later to serve Texas as governor, had nuggets picked off the surface of the ground and hauled to Austin. In 1861, Assistant State Geologist S. B. Buckley charted the mineral site. The Rangers' ore haul was processed and used in gun caps for Confederate forces during the Civil War. To get more of the needed metal, the Texas Copper Mining & Manufacturing Company was founded on May 28, 1864, but wartime shortage of men apparently prevented recovery of copper at that time. The T.C.M.&M. Co., based in Dallas, sent W. F. Cummings to Archer County in 1880 to open mining sites. Although the Texas Commissioner of Agriculture and Statistics reported in 1882 that no mining had commenced, ore eventually was hauled out and shipped to smelters in the east. No central vein or deposit could be found. The Boston & Texas Copper Company of Tucson, Ariz., leased the mine site here in 1899. It produced some copper ore which was processed in El Paso, but again the project failed to meet expectations. (1971) #190

?, Archer City, TX, United States

Archer County Courthouse. Courthouse, Archer County, 1891. Besides government, housed many pioneer social affairs. Dome, cupola removed, 1925. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1965. #191

?, Archer City, TX, United States

Archer County Discovery Well. M. P. Andrews No. 1, drilled in 1911, reached oil sands at 920 feet. Well first flowed oil, March, 1912, at rate of 10 barrels a day. Production in this shallow sand development area fell off when oil prices dropped, but rose after other pools in the region were tapped from 1916 to 1921. Since then, Archer County has become one of the state's most productive. The Hull-Silk-Sikes Well, 1939, opened a major field. More than 333 million barrels of crude oil have been produced by the county since 1911, with Andrews No. 1 still pumping. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1967. #192

?, Archer City, TX, United States

Archer County Jail. By 1909 Archer County had outgrown its original jail, a 16-foot square frame building. Construction on this larger facility was completed in Sept. 1910. The sandstone structure was designed with living quarters for the sheriff and his family on the ground floor. The second and third floors had cells and a hanging gallows which was never used. The first prisoner held in this jail was arrested for stealing a horse. More than 8,000 prisoners were jailed here until the county opened a new facility in 1974. (1985) #193

100 N. Sycamore, Archer City, TX, United States

Archer Park. This one-block-square tract of land was deeded to the city of McAllen for use as a public park in 1917, six years after the town was incorporated. The donor, Mayor Oliver Percy Archer (1869-1930), was a prominent local businessman and civic leader. The site was officially named for him in 1933 by the McAllen Board of City Commissioners. From 1936 to 1949 the McAllen Public Library was housed in the basement area of the bandstand. The site of many community activities and celebrations, Archer Park serves as a reminder of the early days of McAllen. (1981) #194

?, McAllen, TX, United States

Argyle. This area was first settled in the 1850s by members of the Peters Colony. In 1881 the town of Argyle was started by Galveston developer James Morrill, when a rail line was built through the area. Early residents came from neighboring settlements. Schools consolidated with Argyle included Beulah, Pilot Knob, Stoney Ridge, Lane, and parts of the Prairie Mound and Litsey Districts. An 1895 fire destroyed the business area, but it was soon rebuilt. The growth of nearby urban areas, which led to a decline before World War II, has resulted in recent population increases. (1981) #195

506 N. US 377, Argyle, TX, United States

Argyle United Methodist Church. Organized thirteen years after the town of Argyle was founded, this church was chartered in 1894 with twenty-seven members. The first pastor was the Rev. Blueford Henry Webster, a Methodist circuit rider from Mississippi. Early worship services for the congregation were conducted in the Argyle Schoolhouse. In 1898 church trustees purchased land at this location from the Texas and Pacific railway and W. H. Abrams, company trustee. The first sanctuary, a frame structure, was built here soon afterward during the pastorate of the Rev. J. R. Atchley, who completed much of the carpentry work with the assistance of a Mr. Rhodes and several church members. Adjoining property was acquired by church trustees in 1947. A brick sanctuary was constructed here in 1969, east of the original structure, and an educational building was added in 1972. Part of a circuit for seventy-eight years, the Argyle United Methodist Church has played a significant role in the development of the town. Membership has included many prominent community leaders, and church facilities have been used for a variety of civic group meetings and public functions. (1981) #196

?, Argyle, TX, United States