The Argyle. Built 1859 by Charles Anderson as headquarters for a 1400-acre house ranch. Leaving San Antonio on Civil War's eve, Anderson sold to poet Hiram McLane who lived here 30 years. In 1890 at Alamo Heights' creation, a subdivider named the mansion for his native Argyllshire, Scotland. The O'Grady family, formerly of Boerne, bought the Argyle in 1893, making it famous for hospitality and food. The classic "Argyle Cook Book" was published in 1940. (1972) #197

934 Patterson Ave., San Antonio, TX, United States

Aransas Creek Settlers. Earliest known residents were Karankawa Indians who named creek. On this stream was one of the most famous ranches in early Texas, occupied in 1805 by Don Martin de Leon, who in 1824 founded Victoria. In 1830's Irish colonists came by way of Copano Bay, settling downcreek. Anglo-Americans from older settlements, came by road and trail, stopping mainly upcreek. Stockraising, trucking and freighting provided livelihoods in the rich, new prairie land. In 1850 Patrick Fadden sold to Ft. Merrill corn and vegetables from 1835 land grant of his uncle, Father John Thomas Malloy. Fadden and W.R. Hayes freighted supplies to settlers in 1860's. Hays had early post office in his home, 1870; was county judge 1876-92. John Wilson, an 1850's upcreek settler, brought first Durham cattle to country; built one of first wooden fences, enclosing 600 acres of homesite with rough heart pine plank. On creek's north bank stood ranch of Frank O. Skidmore, founder of Skidmore, who gained fame for building first barbed wire fence and windmill in county. He promoted breeding of registered Herefords and in 1886 gave much of right-of-way to the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railroad. (1967) #198

?, Skidmore, TX, United States

Arlington Cemetery. Encompassing more than ten acres of land Arlington Cemetery includes within its borders several small historic graveyards, including the original old cemetery of Arlington, the W. W. McNatt Cemetery addition, the Masonic Cemetery, and the Old City Cemetery. William W. McNatt, who brought his family here from Arkansas in 1872, was a retail merchant and large scale farmer in this area. He sold the cemetery property to the Arlington Cemetery Society in 1899. Another group, the Arlington Cemetery Association, was chartered in 1923 and maintained the graveyard for many years until the city of Arlington assumed ownership and maintenance. The oldest documented burial here is that of one-year-old Mattie Luna Cooper (1874-75), daughter of pioneer Arlington settlers J. D. and Luna Copper. Numerous other early settlers also are buried here, as are veterans of conflicts from the Civil War to World War II. Local officials interred in the graveyard include seven former postmasters and the following former mayors: M. J. Brinson, George M. Finger, Emmett E. Rankin, Williams C. Weeks, Thomas B. Collins, T. G. Bailey, W. H. Davis, Preston F. McKee, William H. Rose, and Will G. Hiett. (1994) #199

801 Mary St., Arlington, TX, United States

Arlington Heights Lodge No. 1184, A.F. and A.M. Chartered on December 9, 1921, Arlington Heights Lodge No. 1184 is located on land donated by Lodge members W.C. Stonestreet and F.H. Sparrow. This building, designed by Lodge member John C. Davies (1885-1963), was dedicated January 3, 1923. The Classical Revival structure with strong Greek temple influence features pedimented gables, brick pilasters with stone capitals, round-arch upper windows and entry, stone motif details, and art glass transoms. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1987. #200

4600 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX, United States

Armstrong County. Created 1876. Name honors several Texas pioneers named Armstrong. Ranching became the chief industry when huge JA Ranch was established here in 1876. Farming was introduced after the railroad came through, 1887. County was organized in 1890. Present courthouse was built 1912. (1969) #202

?, Claude, TX, United States

Armstrong County Jail. Erected in 1953, this building is constructed of stone used to build the first masonry jail in Armstrong County, 1894. Stone for the structure (which replaced a primitive, frame "calaboose") was quarried 14 miles south at Dripping Springs in Palo Duro Canyon and then hauled here in wagons driven by local citizens. The rock was cut at this site. The 1894 building had two stories, topped by a dome, and 20-inch walls. So sturdy was it that dangerous convicts from other counties were kept here. Old-timers remember that only three prisoners ever escaped. (1969) #203

?, Claude, TX, United States

Booker T. Washington School. Public education for African American students in Texas City began in 1915. The Texas City Independent School District hired Mrs. J. R. McKellar to teach the students; classes were held in churches and lodge halls until 1937, when the district purchased this property and moved a one-story wooden building to the site. For many years, Booker T. Washington School offered instruction only through grade seven, so students traveled to Galveston to complete their education. A brick schoolhouse constructed here in 1946-47 housed grades one through ten. In 1953, a high school building was added to the campus, and African American students could at last complete their high school education in Texas City. Extracurricular activities, including athletic and music programs, were important parts of student life. With the full integration of Texas City public schools in 1969, Booker T. Washington closed. It remains, however, a significant part of Texas City's 20th-century social and educational history. The campus has continued in use for a variety of community purposes, including facilities for The College of the Mainland in its initial years (1967-71), for Project Head Start (1974-89) and for the Calvin Vincent Learning Center (1996). (1997) #204

701 Second Ave. South, Texas City, TX, United States

Armstrong-Adams House. Dr. David H. Armstrong, who served as one of the first trustees of the Salado public free schools, and his wife, Julia, built this home between 1869 and 1872. It later became the residence of a succession of Salado doctors, including Dr. D.G. Adams and Dr. J.E. Guthrie. The central cottage plan residence features elements of the Greek Revival style, such as the Classical portico with Doric piers over the entryway. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1985 #205

2 N. Main St., Salado, TX, United States

Arneckeville. A native of Germany, Adam Christopher Henry Arnecke settled in this area in the 1850s and opened the community's first general store. Originally known as Zionsville, the settlement later was named for Arnecke. By the end of the 19th century, Arneckeville had blacksmith shops, doctors' offices, a cotton gin, post office, school, and a church, Zion Lutheran, that was organized in 1865. Although the small German community began to decline when a farm-to-market road was built to Cuero (7 miles north), it has retained much of its pioneer heritage. #206

?, Cuero, TX, United States

Arney School. Among the early settlers in northeast Castro County were George & Jim Arney, two brothers from Missouri, for whom Arney community was named. A school was started in 1901 for the children of settlers and ranch hands. The first schoolhouse, a one-room frame structure, also housed services of Arney Baptist Church, which was organized in 1905. Arney school operated until 1953, when it was consolidated with other districts. The school building then served as a community center and polling place. (1985) #207

?, Nazareth, TX, United States

Arno Schwethelm Building. Prominent local merchant Arno Schwethelm had this building constructed in 1916 to house his mercantile business, a leading Hill Country establishment. Designed by L. Harrington of San Antonio and built by stonemason Otto Bartel, it combines the function of a twentieth century commercial structure with the detail of German craftsmanship. Incorporated in the native limestone building are materials from an earlier structure at this site. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1981 #208

?, Comfort, TX, United States

Aron-Harris House. Designed by Putnam Russell, an architect from New York, this house was constructed in 1889 for local merchant Morris Aron and his wife Henrietta. In 1897 the home was purchased by Plummer and Josie Harris and it remained in their family until 1951. The Queen Anne styling features intricate ornamentation and a corner turret with a bell-shaped roof. The interior includes ornate woodwork and marble detailing. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1980*** #209

523 W. Hunt St., McKinney, TX, United States

Texas & Pacific Railway. Railroad made this "Cattle Capital of West Texas" in 1880s. Cattlemen Frank Byler, Clay Mann, Winfield Scott, C.C. Slaughter and others brought herds here early as 1877, when last of the buffalo were being exterminated. A Texas Ranger unit was stationed in area to guard against straggling Indians. After Texas & Pacific locators staked course through this valley, rancher George Waddell persuaded A.W. Dunn of Coleman to build a store here. Lumber came by wagon from Round Rock (about 300 mi. SE), and was sparingly used. Store had tarpaulin roof, dirt floor, and was opened in late summer 1880. Soon two saloons were also in business. Railroaders--including bridge crew of A.J. Coe--arrived in the fall. By April 16, 1881, when the Texas & Pacific initiated train service to this site, some 350 people lived here in tents and dugouts, and had a newly organized county government, a school, post office and newspaper. This was terminus for months, while river bridge was being built. Then and until late 80s, this was shipping point for such remote places as ranches of Charles Goodnight and the XIT, near present Amarillo. The T. & P. freighted in tons of windmills and barbed wire, shipped out thousands of cattle--giving this city renown. (1970) #210

Elm and Main St., Colorado City, TX, United States

Arroyo de Juan Lorenzo. Name used by Spaniards of Presidio de San Saba (in existence from 1757 to 1770) for this stream now called Celery Creek. Stone to build Presidio was quarried from bluffs along the creek, and deep banks let hostile Indians approach undiscovered, to attack the Presidio, half a mile to the southwest. #211

US 90 at Celery Creek Bridge, Menard, TX, United States

Arsenal Magazine. At the urging of United States Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, land was secured at San Antonio in 1858 for an arsenal. In 1859, the State of Texas added 16 acres, and the arsenal became headquarters for the U.S. Army's department of Texas. Under construction when the Civil War (1861-65) began, this magazine was included in Federal property surrendered in 1861. The building was completed for Confederate Texas by local contractor J.H. Kampmann. Carefully spaced vents and cavities in the walls permitted air circulation and reduced the danger of sparks igniting stored gunpowder. The arsenal supplied arms for south Texas and frontier defense, as well as the Sibley expedition to New Mexico in 1862. Reoccupied by Federal forces in 1865, this became the principal supply depot for the line of Forts defending frontier settlements. It served the U.S. Army until 1947, when the Arsenal was closed. The long, narrow one-story structure features walls of extremely thick ashlar limestone construction. Details include end gables extended above the roofline, lintels which protrude as hood molds, and date stone in relief over the side entry. #212

646 S. Main, San Antonio, TX, United States

Artesian Park and Sulphur Well. After a convention of Republic of Texas citizens accepted terms on July 4, 1845, for annexation to the United States, General Zachary Taylor brought 4,000 men of the U.S. 3rd infantry to Corpus Christi to defend the embryonic state from indians or foreign powers. He remained eight months; more than two months after Texas became a state he marched to the Rio Grande. Among his troops in Corpus Christi were three future United States presidents (Taylor, Pierce, and Grant), and many other future celebrities. A landmark of Taylor's sojourn was a sulphur-rich artesian well he had drilled adjacent to the camp. In 1854, out of regard for the significant well and campsite, and to give the city he had founded (1839) a public park, H.L. Kinney deeded and dedicated the well site and an acre of surrounding land to the municipality. This park is one of the earliest in Texas to have been given by an individual to the public. By 1900--when a bandstand, drinking fountain and walks had been installed by civic or private means--the park was regarded as an historic, greatly cherished city facility. More land was added in 1907--08 through efforts of the Woman's Monday Club. Use and improvements have continued over 120 years. #213

Twigg St. at Chaparral, Corpus Christi, TX, United States

Arthur Carroll Scott, Sr., M.D.. (July 12, 1865-October 27, 1940) Born in Gainesville, Texas, Arthur Scott graduated from Bellevue Medical College in 1886. In 1892 he became Chief Surgeon of the Santa Fe Hospital in Temple. He formed a partnership with Dr. R.R. White, Jr., in 1897, and they founded the Temple Sanitarium (later Scott and White Hospital) in 1904. A specialist in surgery, Dr. Scott became a well known authority in cancer diagnosis and treatment. After a remarkable career, he died in 1940. Recorded - 1997 #214

1601 N. Main St., Temple, TX, United States

Arthur Carroll Scott, Sr., M.D.. (1865-1940) Born in Gainesville, Texas, Arthur C. Scott graduated from Bellevue Medical College in 1886 and won an internship at the Western Pennsylvania Hospital. Returning to Gainesville, he married Maud M. Sherwood in 1889 and began a private medical practice. In 1892 Dr. Scott was appointed Chief Surgeon of the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Hospital in Temple. In 1895 he hired Dr. Raleigh R. White, Jr., and they formed a private partnership in 1897. In 1904 they founded the Temple Sanitarium which they directed jointly until Dr. White's death in 1917. Subsequently, Dr. Scott established a partnership with Dr. G.V. Brindley, Sr., and Dr. M.W. Sherwood and changed the name of the hospital to Scott and White Hospital in 1922. A specialist in surgery, Dr. Scott became an internationally respected authority in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Scott and White received accreditation from the American College of Surgeons as a cancer treatment center in 1933, the earliest in Texas. Dr. Scott was active in many medical and community organizations. The institution he co-founded became a multi-specialty health system renowned in the Southwest. He died in 1940. (1997) #215

2401 S. 31st St., Temple, TX, United States

Arthur Henry Vollentine. Arthur Henry Vollentine was born in New Jersey or Virginia about 1807. He came to Texas about 1833 as a colonist of Empresario Martin de Leon and in 1834 he married Maryland native Mary Ann May. They moved to a Mexican land grant on Brushy Creek near present-day Yoakum, Texas, that Henry had acquired in 1835. From October 1835 through January 1836 Vollentine served in the Republic of Texas Army at Fort Goliad. They left their South Texas home in March 1836 during the Runaway Scrape, lived in the Nacogdoches district for several years, then returned to this area by 1840. Mary Ann died about 1841. In 1845 Vollentine married her cousin, Mariah Brown, whose grandfather Bernard Brown donated land for St. Mary's Church and cemetery in 1841. Texas granted Vollentine land on the Lavaca River near Hallettsville in 1846. They farmed and ranched on their Brushy Creek and Lavaca River properties. The Vollentine cattle brand appeared as V5. Vollentine, appointed one of Lavaca County's first county commissioners soon after its creation in 1846, was instrumental in the selection of Hallettsville as county seat in 1852. Arthur H. Vollentine, his wife Mariah, and many of his descendants are buried here. #216

?, Hallettsville, TX, United States

Arthur Pendleton Bagby. (May 17, 1833 - February 21, 1921) Star and Wreath Native Alabamian, last surviving member of West Point class of 1852, lawyer, colonel in 7th Texas Confederate Cavalry, participant in Sibley's New Mexico campaign, commanded volunteer land troops on board Confederate ship Neptune during Battle of Galveston, wounded and commended for role in engagement near Berwick Bay in Louisiana, led brigade at battles of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill in Louisiana, major-general in Confederate Army. Buried in city cemetery, Hallettsville. 1963 #217

315 S. Dowling Street, Hallettsville, TX, United States

Arwine Cemetery. Pioneer Daniel Arwine (1830-1887) migrated to Texas from Indiana in 1865. A deputy U.S. Marshall, Arwine deeded six acres for a school, church and cemetery in 1879. The schoolhouse served for worship services and gatherings. First burial in this cemetery was Arwine's daughter Katy (d. 1879). The grave of Enoch Sexton (d. 1890), an uncle of Arwin, has the oldest stone. Arwine, his wife and parents are among those buried in the 279 known graves. Relatives and local Boy Scouts have maintained the graveyard. In 1975 the Arwine Cemetery Association was organized. (1977) #218

700 block of Arwine Court, Hurst, TX, United States

Ash Creek Baptist Church. On September 9, 1871, the Rev. J.C. Powers led 48 charter members in organizing Ash Creek Missionary Baptist Church. Guarding against Indians, Rev. Powers preached with a gun beside his Bible and men kept rifles on their knees. A meeting house was erected at this site in 1891 under the Rev. T.H. Sturges. In summers, brush arbors were built and prayer meetings held on the grounds. The women sold all eggs laid on Sundays to buy Sunday school literature. In 1965 a new auditorium was built and the original structure used for a Fellowship Hall. (1979) #219

300 S. Stewart St., Azle, TX, United States

Ash Creek Cemetery. The oldest known graves in this community burial ground are those of Dave Morrison (1849-1874) and W. P. Gregg (1833-1874). Dr. James Azle Stewart, for whom Azle is named, and John Giles Reynolds, early grist mill operator, each donated an acre of land to establish the cemetery. Both Stewart and Reynolds are buried here. The Azle Cemetery Association was organized in 1922 to care for the site and to keep burial records. The Association bought additional land in 1932, 1947 and 1959 and constructed a tabernacle on the grounds. There are over 2,000 graves in Ash Creek Cemetery. (1985) #220

310 S. Stewart St., Azle, TX, United States

Aston House. When Hood County native Andy C. Aston (1857-1917) married young Dorothy Ficklin (1875-1961), he promised her a fine home. He had gifted designer and builder E.J. Holderness erect this ornate Queen Anne Style House in 1905. A warm-hearted person, active in her church and community, Mrs. Aston often opened the house to large gatherings. An Andy Aston grandchild was born here before the property passed from the family in 1925. #221

221 E. Bridge St., Granbury, TX, United States

Aston-Landers Building. Erected 1893 as a saloon by Andy Aston and George Landers; of native stone, with patented iron front. Here occurred a 1901 duel that badly injured a non-participating horseman on the square. Crusader Carrie Nation visited Granbury in 1905, and in 1906 voters outlawed liquor. Afterward Aston had his buggy and harness shop in the building, employing fine leather craftsmen Charlie Maxwell and Wilkes McCuen. Later the building housed shops of many kinds. #222

113 Bridge St., Granbury, TX, United States

Atascosa County. As early as 1722 El Camino Real (The King's Highway) from the Rio Grande to San Antonio was well established in this area. The Spanish word "Atascosa," denoting boggy ground that hindered travel, gave region its name. The county was created in 1856 from land formerly in Bexar County. Jose Antonio Navarro, whose 1831 claim was the first grant recorded in area, gave land in 1857 for first county seat, Navatasco. County seat moved to Pleasanton in 1858, to Jourdanton in 1911. Livestock, oil, gas and strawberries are well-known products of the county. #223

?, Jourdanton, TX, United States

Atascosa County Courthouse. Atascosa County was created from Bexar County in 1856. The first county seat was at Navatasco, on land donated by Jose Antonio Navarro, and the county's first courthouse was a log cabin. The county seat was moved to Pleasanton in 1858, and a frame courthouse was erected. A second courthouse was built in 1868, followed by a third, a red rock structure in 1885. When a special election resulted in the relocation of the county seat to Jourdanton in 1910, the county officers were first housed in rented quarters. The following year the Gordon-Jones Company began construction on a new courthouse. Completed in 1912, the building was designed by San Antonio architect Henry T. Phelps (1881-1945), who would also design the Atascosa County Jail in 1915. The two-story brick building has identical entries at each side. Mission Revival-style detail includes curvilinear parapets and occasional Renaissance motifs, accomplished with cast-stone highlights, metal balustrades, and tile roofing. The corners of the building are turned with three-story tower bays, each topped by an open belvedere. Later alterations to the courthouse replaced original windows and installed an elevator opposite the original stairwell. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986. #224

?, Jourdanton, TX, United States

Atascosa County Courthouse. This log cabin is a replica of first courthouse built 1856 near Amphion (Navatasco) 9 miles to the orthwest, on site given by Jose Antonio Navarro out of his 1828 grant from Coahuila and Texas. A signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, he helped organize this county. First court term, 1857. First officials: Sheriff, James H. French; Chief Justice, Marcellus French; District Clerk, Edward Walker; County Clerk, Daniel Tobin; Tax Assessor-Collector, Thomas R. Brite; County Treasurer, Baylor Winn; District Attorney, James Paul; District Judge, E.F. Buckner. (1964) #225

?, Jourdanton, TX, United States

Thomas Henry Borden. Site of the home of Thomas Henry Borden one of the "Old Three Hundred" of Austin's colonies. Surveyed the town of Galveston. Editor and one of the founders in 1835 of the "Telegraph and Texas Register. Born in Norwich, New York, January 28, 1804;died in Galveston, Texas March 17, 1877. #226

?, Galveston, TX, United States

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad, The Amarillo Story. Construction of a railroad across the Panhandle led to the founding of Amarillo as County Seat of Potter County, Aug. 30, 1887. For the ensuing ten years, Amarillo had a monopoly on trade from the South plains, and was the nation's largest rural cattle shipping point, 1892-97. But in 1898 its trade was threatened and the city's very existence jeopardized when it appeared that the (Santa Fe sponsored) Pecos Valley & North Eastern Railway, to be built to Roswell, N.M. (220 mi. SW), might make junction with the Santa Fe at Washburn (15 mi. SE), cutting off ready access to the South plains. The Santa Fe, however, responded to requests from the citizens to make Amarillo the terminus of the new line. The Santa Fe acquired the Pecos Valley & North Eastern in 1899 and moved headquarters from Panhandle (30 mi. NE) to Amarillo. In 1908 the Santa Fe extended its main line here from Panhandle and built a link from Texico, N.M., to Belen, N.M., making Amarillo a major point on the transcontinental line. These measures, together with construction of branch lines, contributed vitally to making Amarillo the commercial center of the High Plains. (1973) #227

900 Polk St., Amarillo, TX, United States

Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe Railroad Depot. The 1920s oil boom brought increased business to this railroad town,and a new depot was built here in 1928. The structure exhibits elements of the Prairie School, Mission, and Tudor styles of architecture. Prominent features include bracketed overhangs, stepped parapets, and cast stone window surrounds. One of the last brick depots built on the company's western lines, it was last used for passenger service in 1971. It became City Hall in 1985. #228

200 South Main Street, Panhandle, TX, United States

Atelier Building. Developer Thomas S. Weaver had this structure built about 1905. Named "Atelier", the French word for an artist's studio, it has housed the offices of architects and contractors, a restaurant, and financial institutions, including the banking firm of W.R. Edrington, a noted Fort Worth benefactor. In 1936 the building served as the temporary location of the Carnegie Library. Built of brick, it features two chimneys with terra cotta ornamentation. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1980. #229

209 W. 8th, Fort Worth, TX, United States

Atherton School. The first educational facility in this area, a boarding school for boys, opened in the 1880s. It was housed in a two-story structure built on land owned by F. M. Farley. A local schoolteacher, Abbie Atherton, applied to the U.S. Government for a post office for the community in 1892. The post office was named Atherton, and Abbie Atherton served as first postmistress. Eventually, the community and the school also became known as Atherton. In addition to educational facilities, the school provided a meeting place for local church congregations and community activities. W. T. Nelson donated an acre of land at this site for the school in 1904. The school building was enlarged over the years as student attendance increased, and another acre of land was deeded to the school in 1918 by W. T. Nelson. Atherton school served families in a large rural area, with some students traveling as many as five miles to school each day. Atherton School continued to serve residents of this area until 1942, when it was consolidated with the Lometa School System. The school building was later moved to Lometa in 1956. #230

?, Lometa, TX, United States

Atoka Cemetery. Settlement of this area began in the 1850s with the establishment of Camp Colorado, a United States cavalry outpost. At the outbreak of the Civil War the camp was occupied by Texas State Troops and Texas Ranger units. The existence of the camp spurred permanent settlement in the area, and many families moved here from the southern United States after the Civil War. The settlers established farms and ranches, and the Atoka community included a general store operated by D.A. Parker and S.N. Edenborough, a combination church/school building, and a cotton gin built by D.A. Parker. This cemetery was established in 1880 on land deeded by C.E. Bush. Among the early pioneers buried here are the Rev. Hugh Martin Childress, Sr., a former Texas Ranger and Republic of Texas soldier; his son, Elisha Childress, who served as the first Coleman County sheriff; veterans of the Civil War; and several workers killed in an explosion that occurred during the construction of a Santa Fe Railroad bridge across Jim Ned Creek in 1910. The cemetery, which is maintained by an association of descendants of those buried here, is one of the few physical reminders of the Atoka community and its pioneer settlers. (1996) #232

?, Novice, TX, United States

Audubon. A vanished town which was important in this area in the 19th century. It was settled by southerners and named for naturalist John J. Audubon (1785-1851). Earliest settler, D. D. Shirey, platted town out of his farm land in 1865. He and his wife, "Aunt Polly", expanded their log house into a stagecoach inn that grew famous for a lavish table. Their excellent food was set out on a lazy Susan, which was the wonder of the countryside. In the late 1860s and following decades, trail crews detoured from the cattle trail that ran to the east of here and bought supplies in the town. Audubon had a post office from June 25, 1874, to July 20, 1904. Local social and fraternal bodies included Woodmen of the World and a Masonic Lodge active from 1879 to 1886. There were three churches, a school, a telephone office, two cotton gins, several mercantile stores, several lawyers and physicians, and two blacksmiths. The noted Dr. W. B. Palmer, had a beautiful country home, "Gynndome". Bypassed by the Fort Worth & Denver Railroad in 1883, Audubon gradually declined. Post office closed in 1904; school consolidated with Alvord in 1930. Among outstanding native sons was the Reverend M. M. Barnett of the California Baptist Foundation. #233

N of intersection of CR 2585 and 2675, Alvord, TX, United States

August C. and Julia Richter Mansion. A native of San Antonio, August C. Richter (1863-1940) moved to Laredo in 1888. He acquired full ownership of an early fixed price department store, "El Precio Fijo." His wife, Julia, played a major role in the city's cultural and educational circles and introduced music to the Laredo public schools. This classical revival home, built for their family in 1906, features Ionic columns and first and second story wraparound porches. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1985 #234

1906 Houston St., Laredo, TX, United States

August Dietz Cottage. August Dietz came to Texas in 1849 as a German immigrant, and settled in New Braunfels. On Sept. 1, 1866, he bought this lot, soon built this cottage, and sold it on Dec. 2, 1867. At first a two room structure, the building was later enlarged. Its mortared rock walls are 20 inches thick. The beaded ceiling, the plain board ceiling, the window glass and casements, and front door are all original. House and additions were restored in 1973 by William J. Kolodize.** Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1974*** #235

197 E. Mill Street, New Braunfels, TX, United States

August Ebers House. In 1860 August Ebers, a German immigrant, built the east portion of this stone house. It included a kitchen, a "big room", and an upstairs loft bedroom. Before 1880 he added the west wing. Ebers was killed in a well accident in 1884, and his family continued operating the farm. The home became a social center where community dances were held, and served as a polling place during elections. The home remained in the family until 1962. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1983 #236

?, Fredericksburg, TX, United States

August Faltin Building. Prussian native Friedrich August Faltin (1830-1905) moved to Comfort in 1856 and purchased the general merchandise business of Theodor Goldbeck, located at this site. Trained in his father's store, which had been established about 1818 in Danzig, Prussia, now Gdansk, Poland, Faltin became a leading merchant of the Texas Hill Country. In addition, his 1869 partnership with Capt. Charles Schreiner of Kerrville became the nucleus of the vast Schreiner enterprises. By the late 1870s Faltin's business, which included banking and post office services, had outgrown the structure at this site and he had architect Alfred Giles of San Antonio design a new building. Constructed by the noted builder J. H. Kampmann, the Victorian Italian edifice was completed in 1879. Later run by Faltin's sons Richard and August S., the business was sold in 1907 to their brother-in-law Dan Holekamp and his sons Otto and Edgar. That same year an addition to the building was completed. Also designed by Giles, it included second floor space for meetings and fraternal and civic groups. In 1968 the property was sold back to the Faltin family. The August Faltin Building remains as a symbol of the area's early commercial growth. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1982 #237

?, Comfort, TX, United States

August Fransal. One of the many fearless stage drivers who traveled on the Ben Ficklin Overland Mail Line from San Antonio to El Paso. On this dangerous route, threatened by wild Apaches, Fransal regularly drove his mule-drawn stage. He served as a Texas Ranger 1881-1882 and in 1883 under Capt. George W. Baylor. He was also a teamster at Fort Davis. Later he was a hunter, selling fresh game (a welcome substitute for dried, cured meat) in El Paso. #238

?, Sierra Blanca, TX, United States

Augustine Celaya House. Built in 1904, this Late Victorian home exhibits features of the Italianate and Queen Anne styles of architecture. Owners Augustine and Laura Celaya designed the home, which became prominent in the social and civic life of the city. Features of the house, which remained in the Celaya Family for generations, include polygonal bays, a two-story inset curvilinear porch, a transom over the front door, and hood mouldings over the doors and windows. #239

500 E. St. Francis St., Brownsville, TX, United States

Aurora Cemetery. The oldest known graves here, dating from as early as the 1860's, are those of the Randall and Rowlett families. Finis Dudley Beauchamp (1825-1893), a Confederate veteran from Mississippi, donated the 3-acre site to the newly formed Aurora Lodge No. 479, A.F. & A.M., in 1877. For many years, this community burial ground was known as Masonic Cemetery. Beauchamp, his wife Caroline (1829-1915), and others in their family are buried here. An epidemic which struck the village in 1891 added hundreds of graves to the plot. Called "spotted fever" by the settlers, the disease is now though to have been a form of meningitis. Located in Aurora Cemetery is the gravestone of the infant Nellie Burris (1891-1893) with its often-quoted epitaph: "As I was so soon done, I don't know why I was begun." This site is also well known because of the legend that a spaceship crashed nearby in 1897 and the pilot, killed in the crash, was buried here. Struck by epidemic and crop failure and bypassed by the railroad, the original town of Aurora almost disappeared, but the cemetery remains in use with over 800 graves. Veterans of the Civil War, World Wars I and II, and the Korean and Vietnam conflicts are interred here. #240

FM 114, S. of Aurora, Aurora, TX, United States

Austin Avenue Methodist Church. Designed by R.H. Hunt, this edifice is substantial interpretation of Gothic architecture. It was built in 1925 during the ministry of the Rev. Cullom H. Booth. The two-story-equivalent brick structure, which rests on a raised basement, features a prominent bell tower. The original tracery detail in the tower was removed by the 1940s. The original art glass windows and tracery detail in the sanctuary were replaced after a 1954 fire caused extensive damage. #241

1300 Austin Ave., Waco, TX, United States

Austin Avenue United Methodist Church. At the close of the nineteenth century, when it was determined that Waco's Fifth Street Methodist Episcopal Church, south (now First United Methodist Church) had grown too large, its members petitioned the denominaiton conference of the organization of another congregation in Waco. As a result, the quarterly conference approved the establishment of Austin Avenue Methodist Church on December 31, 1900. The Rev. John R. Nelson was appointed to organize the new congregation. Three lots were purchased at the corner of Austin Avenue and 12th street for a church building. The congregation was offically chartered on December 29, 1901, with a membership of 81,and a sanctuary was completed in April 1902. The congregation experienced a steady growth that paralleled that of its neighborhood. When the first building became too small for the growing church, it was sold to Trinity Presbyterian Church, and a new Methodist structure was built at Austin Avenue and 13th street. Throughout its history, this church has served its community with a variety of outreach programs. It continues to be an important part of Waco's history. #242

1300 Austin Ave., Waco, TX, United States

Austin County. A part of the grant to Stephen F. Austin in 1821, created a municipality under the Mexican government in 1828, became a county of the Republic of Texas, March 17, 1836. Named in honor of Stephen Fuller Austin, 1793-1836, pioneer empresario, founder of Anglo-American Texas. San Felipe de Austin, capital of Austin's colony, 1824-1836, seat of provisional government of Texas, 1835-1836. County seat, 1837-1848, Bellville, since. #243

?, Bellville, TX, United States

Austin County Jail. Calling their old jail "unsafe, unfit, and inadequate," the Austin County Court contracted in 1896 with Pauly Jail Building Co. of St. Louis to erect this structure at cost of $19,970. Romanesque Revival style, with crenelated parapets, bartizans, and stone window arches harmonized with the 1886 courthouse, which later burned. The gallows, used only in 1901, have been removed; jailer's quarters have been enlarged; but original exterior is preserved. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1976 #244

36 S. Bell Street, Bellville, TX, United States

Camp of Stephen F. Austin. Site of the camp of Stephen F. Austin (October 20-226, 1835) while assembling troops preparatory to the attack on the Mexican garrison at San Antonio. After his appointment on November 12 as Commissioner to the United States, the Texans, under Colonels Ben Milam and Frank W. Johnson stormed and captured San Antonio, December 10, 1835. (1936) #245

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Moses Austin. (Front) Born in Connecticut, October fourth 1761; moved to Philadephia in 1783. Thence to Virginia in 1785 and to Missouri in San Antonio on December 23, 1820. Died in Missouri June 10, 1821. (Right) Moses Austin here petitioned the Spanish authorties for the right to bring three-hundred families to Texas and returned to MIssouri to wait the answer. (Back) Exposure and exhaustion during his Texas journey caused his death a few days after receiving notification that his petition had been granted. His dying request was that his son Stephen should carry out his vision. (Left) A man of vision, enterprise, industry and indomitable energy...he most fittingly bequeathed the realization of his plans to his more deliberate, patient, tactful and diplomatic son. (1936) #246

1700 N. Congress, San Antonio, TX, United States

Stephen F. Austin. Stephen F. Austin, Father of Texas, November 3, 1793-December 27, 1836. He planted the first Anglo-American colony in Texas, "The Old Three Hundred". In his several colonies he settled more than a thousand families. He was from 1823 until 1828 the actual ruler of Texas and thereafter its most influential leader. His own words are a fitting epitaph: "The prosperity of Texas has been the object of my labors -- the idol of my existence -- it has assumed the character of a religion -- for the guidance of my thoughts and actions" -- and he died in its service. No other state in the union owes its existence more completely to one man than Texas does to Austin. Erected by the State of Texas 1936 with funds appropriated by the Federal government to commemorate one hundred years of Texas independence. #248

?, San Felipe, TX, United States

Replica of Stephen F. Austin's Cabin. Built in 1954, this structure is a replica of the only Texas home of Stephen F. Austin, "Father of Texas." The chimney contains bricks from original (1828) cabin. Other materials were made as authentically as possible. Austin (1793-1836) opened the Anglo-American colonization of Texas. His cabin, located in capital city of San Felipe, welcomed pioneers and statesmen of era; witnessed many crucial events leading to Texas Revolution. (1970) #249

15945 FM 1458, San Felipe, TX, United States