Barbed Wire. At first called "Devil's Rope" by cowboys, barbed wire was patented in 1873 but found little favor with Texas cattlemen until the late 1870s, when its use and practicality were shown in a sensational demonstration here in San Antonio. Its showman-sponsor was John Ware Gates (1855-1911), who came here as agent for a pioneer wire manufacturer. With permission from city officials, he built a barbed wire corral on the Military Plaza, then went into various resorts of cattlemen and boasted of its strength and economy. Some of the ranchers made bets that the wire would not hold wild cattle. While the scoffers looked on, some longhorns where turned into the corral and prodded to frenzy by burning torches. They charged the fence furiously, but the wire held. The experiment was such a success that for a long time orders exceeded the supply of barbed wire. In later life known as "bet-a-million" Gates, the agent founded or organized several wire and steel plants. About 1901 he also invested in Spindletop oil field and helped develop the city of Port Arthur, Texas. With its sister utility, the windmill, barbed wire led to upgrading of beef cattle and enhancement of nutrition and the quality of human life. (1971) #300

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Barbed Wire in Cooke County. The development of barbed wire fencing had a revolutionary impact on the economy and settlement pattern in Texas. In 1874, Joseph Glidden of Illinois received a patent for his barbed wire. By 1875, Henry B. Sanborn had come to North Texas as Glidden's barbed wire salesman. Cleaves & Fletcher Hardware, once located at this site, and other Gainesville businesses began to stock Glidden's Barbed Wire as it came into demand by Texas ranchers. Sanborn's 1875 transaction with Cleaves & Fletcher may represent the earliest sale of two-stranded modern barbed wire in Texas. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986. #301

100 E. California, Gainesville, TX, United States

J. G. Barbee House. -- #302

?, Hico, TX, United States

Barclay Cemetery. The town of Barclay was founded in 1877 when William Anderson Barclay (1849-1927) opened a General Mercantile store here. A leader in farming, business, commercial and industrial circles throughout central Texas, W. A. Barclay also operated a large horse and cattle ranch nearby and was appointed the town's first postmaster in 1881. As more settlers moved into the area, the need for a church and cemetery became evident. In 1881 pioneer Lyddleton Smith of Washington County assigned three acres of land for a Baptist Church. The congregation that was organized became known as Beulah (later Barclay) Baptist Church, and its members set aside part of the property for a burial ground. Barclay Cemetery, with its oldest grave dating from 1882,has been enlarged several times over the years. Confederate veteran Paul Pieper (1849-1914), who moved his family to the town in 1882, donated part of his acreage for additional burial grounds in 1886 and deeded more land to the cemetery upon his death. The graveyard has been maintained by the Barclay Cemetery Association since 1915. In use for more than 100 years, the burial ground remains an important part of the history of this community. #303

?, Barclay, TX, United States

Barnard's Mill. Early Texas grist mill. Built like a fort -- with gun ports and walls 3 feet thick at bottom -- to withstand Indian attacks. Constructed in 1860 by Charles Barnard, who (with his brother, George) ran it until 1874. Previously the Barnards had successful trading houses in Waco village and elsewhere. For years, social events were held on the third floor. Cotton gin annex was erected in 1895. Building was a hospital 1943-71. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1962 #304

315 SW Barnard St., Glen Rose, TX, United States

Barnes-Largent House. This home was built about 1910 for Joe and Florence (Largent) Barnes on part of the land acquired by her father, prominent McKinney merchant W.B. Largent. Following the death of her husband in 1924, Florence sold the home to her brother, Dr. Ben Largent (1886-1936), and his wife, Leota. The foursquare style house, which exhibits influences of the prairie school and bungalow styles of architecture, remained in the family until 1945. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1984*** #305

618 W. Louisiana, McKinney, TX, United States

Dr. George Washington Barnett. Born in South Carolina December 12, 1793, killed by Indians October 8, 1848. Served in the army of Texas, 1835-36 signed the Texas declaration of independence, '36 member of the senate of the second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh congresses of the republic. #306

?, Gonzales, TX, United States

Barnett-Hamrick Settlement, 1855-1895. John W. Barnett and family with sons-in-law, Burrell L. and Tom P. L. Hamrick settled large tract of land here. Founded community of Simpson Creek. Were first in area to farm as well to irrigate crops. Were active in local commerce. Helped organize county. First camp meeting and one of first schools were held here. #307

FM 190, about 4 mi. E of San Saba, San Saba, TX, United States

Barreda House. This house was designed by architect Ben Clark and built in 1928-1929 for the firm of Barnes and Kenny for the family of Celestino Pardo Barreda (1858-1953). A 2-story buff brick Spanish Colonial Revival style house, it features twisted cast stone columns, iron balcony railings, a Mission parapet, and a sunroom with arched wood casement windows. Barreda, a native of Spain who came to Texas in 1872, owned a mercantile business and became an influential area commercial leader involved in banking and agriculture. The house has remained in the Barreda Family for more than 60 years. #308

642 E. Washington Street, Brownsville, TX, United States

Barronena Ranch. The Barronena Ranch is an important reminder of early South Texas ranching. Named for a creek (now called Los Machos) which traverses the property, the ranch was part of a larger tract owned by Diego Hinojosa, who received a grant of five leagues from the Republic of Mexico. In 1856, Hinojosa received a state of Texas patent for 2237 acres of this land. James O. Luby (1846-1932) later owned a part of the ranch. a native of England and a Confederate veteran of the Civil War, Luby became the first county judge of Duval County in 1876. Barronena Ranch was purchased by J. M. Bennett (1831-1920) in 1905 and has remained in the Bennett family since that time. The nucleus of the ranch is a 19th century adobe house, reportedly a stage stop between Goliad and Laredo. Other structures include a native rock water trough and storage tank; a native rock wall more than one mile long; remains of a dipping vat and smokehouse; and rock foundations of other buildings, including a blacksmith shop. Richard King, grandson of the founder of the King Ranch, leased the Barronena Ranch in the 1920s. Santa Gertrudis cattle, developed by the King Ranch, were introduced here following World War II. (1989) #309

?, Freer, TX, United States

Barron Field. One of three World War I fight training centers in the Ft. Worth area, Taliaferro Field No. 2 was built on this site in Nov. 1917. First used by Canadian cadets, it was occupied in April 1918 by American military units. In May, the facility was renamed Barron Field for Cadet Robert J. Barron, who was killed at another flying school. Covering over 600 acres, the camp housed as many as 150 officers and 900 enlisted men. Barron Field sent six Air Squadrons to France before the war ended, Nov. 11, 1918. The training facility closed in 1921, and today only the munitions building remains. (1976) #310

Oak Grove Rd. and Everman Rd., Everman, TX, United States

Barrow Ranch House. (RTHL medallion - no text) #311

8900 N. County Road West (FM 1882), Odessa, TX, United States

Bartels-Wirtz House. Distinctions of this Victorian cottage: gable window with star tracery, decorative bargeboard, carpenter's lace. Stained glass entrance doors are duplicated at back of the front hall. Anton Bartles, from Aldenburg, North Germany, came here in 1869; built this house about 1886; was an Alderman, 1889. Later owners have included the Will Wirtz family in 1920s and 30s; Felix Fehrenkamp; Mrs. Isabel Moeller. RTHL 1973 #312

1216 Live Oak St., Columbus, TX, United States

Bartlett Electric Cooperative. Although the town of Bartlett had regular electric service by 1905, farmers in the surrounding rural area were not supplied with electricity until thirty years later. On May 11, 1935, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed an executive order establishing the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) as part of his New Deal emergency relief program. Designed to bring electricity to the rural areas of America, the REA also became a lending agency to help finance such projects. In 1935, the REA lent $33,000 to the Bartlett Community Light & Power Company. Later known as the Bartlett Electric Cooperative, the BCL&P built a 59-mile power line to serve the rural areas surrounding Bartlett. The first section of the line, which was to serve 110 farm homes, became operative in March 1936. Power was provided by the city's municipal light plant, which had been built two years earlier. As the first REA project in Texas and the first in the nation to be enegized under an REA loan, the Bartlett Electric Cooperative played an important role in the modernization of area farms. (1985) #313

27492 SH 95, Bartlett, TX, United States

Bartlett Grammar School. By the early 1900s Bartlett had become the railroad center of a prosperous cotton growing region. In 1903 the Bartlett Independent School District was created. By 1906-07 the 5-room schoolhouse here proved inadequate to house the district's expanding student enrollment. Bartlett enlarged the district's tax base and passed a bond election, and in 1908-09 a new multi-wing brick building, designed by noted Austin architect A.O. Watson, was built here. When a new high school was erected in 1917, the facility at this site became an elementary/grammar school. The school closed in 1988. (1994) #314

300 W. Bell St., Bartlett, TX, United States

City of Bartlett. Settlers began moving to this area in the 1830s, when Texas was a republic, but the town of Bartlett was not established until the 1870s. The founders were J. Edward Pietzsch and Capt. John T. Bartlett, for whom the community was named. In 1882 the railroad was extended to Bartlett, making the city a major regional cotton center. Incorporated in 1890, the city is located on the Williamson-Bell county line, which divides several homes and commercial buildings. Today Bartlett continues to serve as a trade center for the surrounding agricultural district. (1981) #315

140 W. Clark St., Bartlett, TX, United States

Home of Wellborn Barton. Home of Wellborn Barton 1821-1883; Pioneer physician of this region. For many years a trustee of Salado College, built 1866. (John Hendrickson, Contractor) Old military road and Chisholm cattle trail passed here. #316

?, Salado, TX, United States

Battle Cemetery and Community. Established about 1880, the Battle community was named for local landowner Nicholas W. Battle (1820-1905). By the 1890s a town had developed, including a school, post office, business, homes, and churches. A cemetery was established on land acquired from Alexnder and Kenneth McLennan. The earliest documented grave dates to 1888. Following the building of the International and Great Northern Railroad line about 1901, the town began to decline. The Battle Cemetery stands as a memorial to the area's pioneers. #317

?, Mart, TX, United States

Battle Island. Here in 1826, a company of volunteers commanded by Captain Aylett C. Buckner almost exterminated a band of Karankawa Indians who had murdered several families on Lower Caney. #318

?, Matagorda, TX, United States

Battle of Adobe Walls. Fifteen miles to the site of the BATTLE OF ADOBE WALLS Fought on November 25, 1864 between Kiowa and Comanche Indians and United States troops commanded by Colonel Christopher Carson, 1809-1868. This was "Kit" Carson's last fight. (1936) #319

?, Borger, TX, United States

Battle of Adobe Walls. Was fought here November 25, 1864, when Colonel Christopher (Kit) Carson (1809-1868) with a few companies of United States troops under the protection of the Adobe Walls attacked a band of hostile Kiowa and Commanche Indians and killed over 60 braves. This was "Kit" Carson's last fight. (1936) #320

?, Stinnett, TX, United States

Battle of Agua Dulce. During the Texas Revolution, Dr. James Grant (1793-1836), a Scottish-born physician, and Francis W. Johnson (1799-1884) recruited an army of volunteers to invade Mexico and capture the town of Matamoros. After Sam Houston expressed disapproval of the poorly-organized venture, many recruits left the expedition before it reached the settlement of San Patricio along the Nueces River in January 1836. Mexican general Santa Anna, who was organizing an army to attack Texan forces at the Alamo in San Antonio, discovered the Matamoros plan and dispatched General Jose Urrea to stop the advancing expedition. Urrea's cavalry, reinforced with 300 infantrymen, crossed the Rio Grande on February 16. Meanwhile, Grant and Johnson divided their troops to hunt for horses. Johnson's men were camped at San Patricio when Urrea attacked on the morning of February 27. Johnson and 4 others escaped, while 18 texans were killed and 32 captured. On March 2, Urrea's soldiers surprised Grant's company at Agua Dulce Creek (3.25 miles northwest). Grant was among the 12 Texans killed; 6 were taken prisoner, and 6 escaped. The brief skirmish occurred on the same day the Texas Declaration of Independence was signed at Washington on the Brazos. #321

SH 44, E side of Agua Dulce, Agua Dulce, TX, United States

Battle of Coleto and Goliad Massacre. After the fall of the Alamo, March 6, 1836, Colonel James Walker Fannin, with about 400 soldiers, mostly volunteers from the United States in the Texas War for Independence, was ordered by Texas General Sam Houston to retreat from Goliad to Victoria. March 19, the heavy Mexican force of General Urrea surrounded the withdrawing Texas contingent near Coleto Creek, and bitter fighting ensued. Fannin's volunteers hurled back the assaults of the Mexican force. On the following day, faced with several times their number, the Texans surrendered in the belief they would be treated as prisoners of war of a civilized nation. After removal to Goliad, the Fannin men were marched out and massacred on Palm Sunday under orders of Santa Anna, the general of the Mexican armies. Thus dictator Santa Anna added another infamy to that of the Alamo and gave to the men who saved Texas at San Jacinto their battle cry, "Remember the Alamo, Remember Goliad". The memorial to Fannin and his men is near Goliad. (1974) #322

?, Fannin, TX, United States

Battle of La Bolsa. In 1859 and early 1860 a series of raids on Texas settlements led by Juan N. Cortina (1824-1894) led to skirmishes with companies of Texas Rangers and U.S. soldiers. These conflicts became known as the Cortina War. On February 4, 1860, a battle occurred at La Bolsa Bend (ca. 1 mi. S.) between Cortina's raiders and Captain John S. "Rip" Ford's Texas Rangers. The Rangers successfully defended the riverboat "Ranchero", traveling downstream from Rio Grande City, from an attack by Cortina's band. Cortina escaped into Mexico and later became a general in the Mexican Army. #323

?, Progreso, TX, United States

Battle of North Fork of Red River. On Sept. 29, 1872, Col. Ranald S. MacKenzie (1840-89) found in this area a 262-tepee village of Comanches defying treaties that sought to confine them on Indian Territory reservations. MacKenzie's 231 U.S. Cavalry and Infantrymen captured the village in half an hour and routed Chief Mow-Way's warriors, who made a desperate resistance from sheltering creek banks. That night the Indians succeeded in recapturing their horses from an army guard detail. This taught MacKenzie a lesson that led to his eventual victory in the 1874 campaign to subdue the Indians. #324

?, Lefors, TX, United States

George Campbell Childress. Erected by the State of Texas in Memory of George Campbell Childress, co-author and signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence. Born at Nashville, Tennessee, January 8, 1804; died at Galveston, Texas, October 6, 1841. #325

?, Galveston, TX, United States

Thomas Chubb House. This two-story Greek revival residence was constructed in the 1850s. During the Civil War it was the home of Commodore Thomas Chubb (1811-1890), a veteran of the Texas Revolution. Captured by Union naval forces on Galveston Bay, he returned to the city following the war and served as the port's harbor master. Later owners of the house include wholesaler John C. Wallis and Galveston district attorney and political leader Walter Gresham. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1980 #326

1417 Sealy, Galveston, TX, United States

Battle of Palmito Ranch. The last land engagement of the Civil War was fought near this site on May 12-13, 1865, thirty-four days after Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox. Col. Theodore H. Barrett commanded Federal troops on Brazos Island 12 miles to the east. The Confederates occupied Fort Brown 12 miles to the west, commanded by Gen. James E. Slaughter and Col. John S. (Rip) Ford, whose troops had captured Fort Brown from the Federals in 1864. Ordered to recapture the fort, Lt. Col. David Branson and 300 men advanced from Brazos Island. They won a skirmish with Confederate pickets on May 12. Barrett reinforced Branson's troops with 200 men on May 13 and renewed the march to Fort Brown. Confederate cavalry held the Federals in check until Ford arrived with reinforcements that afternoon. Ford's artillery advanced and fired on the northern end of the Federal line while the cavalry charged. The Confederate right charged the southern end of the Federal line and captured part of the Union infantry. Barrett ordered a retreat toward the U.S. position on Brazos Island. While the Confederates reported no fatalities in the Battle of Palmito Ranch, the Union forces reported four officers and 111 men killed, wounded or missing. #327

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Battle of Resaca de la Palma. Was fought here May 9, 1846; And the defeat of the Mexican Army under General Mariano Arista by the United States troops under General Zachary Taylor made good the claim of Texas to the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande #328

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Battle of Rosillo. In this vicinity the Battle of Rosillo was fought on March 28, 1813. Here the "Republican Army of the North" composed of Anglo-Americans, Mexicans and Indians defeated, with heavy loss of life, Spanish Royalists troops commanded by Manuel de Salcedo, Governor of Texas. The prisoners of war were brutally murdered shortly afterwards by order of Colonel Bernardo Gutierrez. (1936) #329

4226 SE Military Drive, San Antonio, TX, United States

Battle of San Patricio. The battle of San Patricio was fought in the streets of Old San Patricio at 3:00 A.M. on February 27, 1836. The general council of the provisional government of Texas had instructed Francis W. Johnson and Dr. James Grant to lead an independent military force against Matamoros, Mexico. Although many of the troops left the command to follow Sam Houston, who opposed the expedition, about 60-70 men remained. Mexican general Jose Urrea, who learned of the plan from his network of spies, sent word to San Patricio settlers loyal to Mexico, instructing them to leave a light burning in their homes as a signal to mexican troops to spare them. After attacking a small force at Garza's Ranch (4 miles south), the mexicans struck San Patricio, killing 16 and taking 30 prisoners. Johnson, working late with a candle burning, and four others in his house escaped. The Mexican troops then proceeded to Agua Dulce Creek (about 20 miles south) and attacked the remaining Texan forces under Grant's command on March 2. Grant and 11 others were killed, seven were captured, and six escaped. Together with those captured at Garza's Ranch and in San Patricio, they were imprisoned in Matamoros and remained in captivity until January 1837. #330

FM 666, at Courthouse grounds, San Patricio, TX, United States

Battle of the Alazan. Fought in this vicinity June 20, 1813. One in chain of clashes between Spanish Royalists and insurgent elements in Coahuila and Texas, 1811-1813. Col. Ygnacio Elizondo was ordered to lead his Spanish Royalists force to Frio River -- but no further. Instead, the colonel, having changed sides twice since opening of hostilities in 1810 and wanting to redeem his honor by reconquering province of Texas for Spanish rule, came to the outskirts of San Antonio some 500 yards west of the Alazan. Underestimating enemy ability, he pitched camp without precaution, neglected to post scouts for pickets. Only 2 bastions of 6 artillery pieces protected camp. Women, children were allowed to mingle with troops. The republican army of the north was in position about camp at sunrise; bounty-collecting Indians were waiting to chase, capture, scalp runaway troops. Then, while Elizondo's men were at Mass, the 2-hour battle began. With a solid green banner for flag, the insurgent leader, Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara, led his men through the very center of Spanish camp. Only those mounted on fleet horses escaped. Elizondo, who had 2 horses shot from under him, managed to catch up with remnants of his army some 15 miles from the battlefield as they hurried to the Rio Grande. (1967) #331

2300 W. Commerce, San Antonio, TX, United States

Battle of the Arroyo Hondo. In 1842 the Mexican Army launched three invasions into Texas to reclaim territory lost during the Texas Revolution. Col. Rafael Vasquez's Army briefly occupied San Antonio in March, and in July Texans fought with Col. Antonio Canales' forces near San Patricio. When Gen. Adrian Woll's Mexican forces advanced through South Texas and captured San Antonio on September 11, Texan volunteers gathered for battle. More than 200 men under the command of Matthew Caldwell assembled at Salado Creek six miles east of the city, where on September 18 they fought with the Mexicn Cavalry. With losses on both sides, the Mexicans returned briefly to San Antonio before beginning their march toward the border. Additional Texan forces marshaled to meet Woll's Army, and on September 21 another battle occurred at Hondo Creek (Arroyo Hondo) near this site. Although Texan and Mexican accounts of the engagement varied considerably, reliable sources indicate that the Texans, plagued by dissension and a lack of clear leadership, failed in their attempt to rout the Mexican forces. The Mexicans returned home and the Texas government, in response to the 1842 invasions, mounted the ill-fated Somervell Expedition later that year. 1992 #332

?, Hondo, TX, United States

Battle of the Knobs. On November 10, 1837, a company of eighteen Republic of Texas soldiers led by Lt. A. B. Benthuysen engaged in a battle with approximately 150 Indians near this site. Ten Texas soldiers were killed in the battle, and the Indian casualties were estimated at fifty. The Texans killed were Alexander Bostwick, Jesse Blair, James Christian, Joseph Cooper, J. Josslin, A. H. Miles, William Nicholson, Wesley Nicholson, William Sanders, and Lewis F. Sheuster. The geologic feature known as the Knobs serves as a memorial to the soldiers who were left on the battlefield. #333

Old Decatur Rd., N of Decatur, Decatur, TX, United States

Battle of the Little Wichita. In reaction to an Indian attack on a mail stage, Capt. Curwen B. McLellan set out on July 6, 1870, from Fort Richardson with 56 men of the 6th Cavalry. On July 12, McLellan's command encountered a war party of 250 Kiowas led by "Kicking Bird" near the north fork of the Little Wichita (6 miles NW). After a brief skirmish, McLellan ordered his troops into retreat, fighting a defensive battle across the middle and south forks of the Little Wichita. The Indians gave up the chase on the 13th. Corporal John Given and Private George Blume were killed; 13 Medals of Honor were awarded for heroism. (1974) #334

?, Archer City, TX, United States

Battle of the Salado. The Battle of the Salado, decisive in Texas history, was fought here September 18, 1842. Col. Mathew Caldwell and Capt. John C. Hays, commanding a force of Texas volunteers, opposed the Mexican Army under General Adrian Woll that had captured San Antonio, and with the loss of only one man, checked the last Mexican invasion of Texas and thereby prevented the capture of Austin, capital of the Republic of Texas. (1936) #335

1006 Holbrook, San Antonio, TX, United States

Battleground Prairie. Where 80 volunteers commanded by General Edward Burleson defeated Vicente Cordova and 75 Mexicans, Indians and Negroes, March 29, 1839, and drove them from Texas, ending the "Cordova Rebellion." 25 of the enemy were killed. Many volunteers were wounded, but none fatally. 1936 #336

?, Seguin, TX, United States

Bay City Library. Organized in 1912, the Bay City Public Library was first housed in the J. P. Keller Insurance Company office. The non-profit Bay City Library Association, also formed in 1912, spearheaded community fund raising efforts to operate the library. Land was purchased in 1913, and a library building was completed in 1914. The first librarian was Miss Josephine McCullough. A new library building was constructed in 1958, and a friends of the library organization was formed in 1977. The Bay City library became part of the Texas state library system in 1987. (1989) #337

1900 Fifth St, Bay City, TX, United States

Bay City Methodist Church. The origins of this congregation date to 1870, when circuit-riding ministers visited people living along the Colorado River at Red Bluff. Norman Savage (1826-1879), a church elder, served the small congregation, and the first minister was Thomas W. Rogers. When the town of Bay City was surveyed in 1894 the Methodist congregation relocated and bought one of the first town lots. By 1897 they had built Bay City's first church structure, a frame building with a steeple and bell. The building also served as a Union church for other denominations in the town. The congregation purchased land at Fourth Street and Avenue H in 1904, and the original church building was later sold to the Bay City school system. Services were held in the courthouse and a building on the square until a temporary open-air tabernacle was built. Additional land was acquired in 1906, and a new sanctuary was completed in 1909 during the pastorate of A. S. Whitehurst. The church's fifth building was erected in 1958 and dedicated on March 30 of that year. A part of Bay City and Matagorda county history for over a century, the Bay City Methodist Church continues to serve the community. (1987) #338

?, Bay City, TX, United States

Bay City Post Office. An election in the fall of 1894 resulted in the relocation of the Matagorda county seat from the city of Matagorda to Bay Prairie (now Bay City). D. P. Moore, the postmaster at the nearby small town of Elliott, owned property in the new town and moved his dry goods store to Bay City in 1894. His nephew, Joseph D. Moore, became Bay City's first postmaster. In 1912 D. P. Moore sold his property to the United States government for a new post office building. Contractor W. B. Lovell broke ground for the post office in 1917 and the building opened to the public on May 15, 1918. An addition built in 1958 provided extra working space and a loading dock at the rear of the structure. This building continued to serve the Bay City community as a post office until 1989. During that time it also served as a town meeting place, the site of the Selective Service Board during World War II, a Civil Defense fallout shelter, and a place of refuge from storms and hurricanes. On October 30, 1990, after several months of negotiations with the United States Postal Service, the Matagorda County Museum Association purchased the building to house the Matagorda County Museum. (1992) #339

2100 Ave F, Bay City, TX, United States

Baylor County. Created February 1, 1858; Organized April 23, 1879; named in honor of Dr. Henry W. Baylor 1818-1854; Indian fighter and Ranger captain; served in the Mexican War. Seymour, the County Seat. #340

?, Seymour, TX, United States

Baylor University. World's largest Baptist University. Founded under charter issued by congress of Republic of Texas on Feb. 1, 1845, and in continuous operation ever since. Named for Judge R.E.B. Baylor (1791-1873), a native of Kentucky, an 1820s United States Congressman from Alabama, one of the first district judges in Texas. Judge Baylor, with the Rev. William Tryon and the Rev. James Huckins, obtained the charter under the terms of a resolution of the Union Baptist Association to establish "A Baptist meet the needs of all the ages to come." First location was at Independence, in Washington County. Early presidents were Henry L. Graves (1847-52), Refus C. Burleson (1852-61), George W. Baines (1861-63), and William Carey Crane (1863-85). Texas supreme court justices Abner S. Limpscomb, Royal T. Wheeler, and Judge Baylor taught the first law classes. An early benefactor was General Sam Houston, who sent his children to the university and who initiated construction of the first woman's building. In 1886 the university moved to Waco, where new schools have been added and the plant enlarged in later years. The Armstrong Browning Library, Texana collections, and other features are world renowned. #341

?, Waco, TX, United States

Baylor-Norvell House. Located on the waterfront in a community that has survived many hurricanes, this house was built about 1868 by Dr. John W. Baylor. In addition to his medical practice Dr. Baylor owned a local meat packing business, ranched, and worked to bring a railroad to the county. Schoolteachers Elisha (1857-1933) and Irene (1865-1944) Norvell moved to Rockport from Goliad in 1888 and rented the house before buying it in 1890. Elisha also worked as an agent for the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railroad and was a realtor. Irene, a musician, sold the house in 1935. (1991) #343

617 S. Water Street, Rockport, TX, United States

Beach Hotel. Constructed in 1904 by local merchant and real estate agent C. U. Yancy, the Beach Hotel has been a part of the Port Lavaca landscape for generations. At the time of its construction, the hotel was the tallest building in town. Tourists from San Antonio and other inland cities often rode special excursion trains to Port Lavaca to enjoy the recreational opportunities along the coast and to stay in the hotel. Traveling salesmen frequently lodged here, and the hotel's dining room was the site of numerous community social events. (1991) #345

?, Port Lavaca, TX, United States

Bear Creek Cemetery. This cemetery was developed adjacent to the site of the Bear Creek Missionary Baptist Church, which was organized in 1853. The earliest marked grave is that of Hiram Jackson Farris (d. 1858), the infant son of G.W. and Mary Farris. Isham Crowley (1798-1878), who came to Texas as a member of Peters Colony, donated the burial ground and deeded it to church trustees in 1876. The congregation later moved to Dallas County and was renamed Western Heights Missionary Baptist Church. Still in use, Bear Creek Cemetery is the burial site of many eastern Tarrant County pioneers. (1980) #346

1400 Minters Chapel Rd., Euless, TX, United States

Beason's (Beeson's) Crossing. Benjamin Beason, one of Stephen F. Austin's original 300 colonists, settled by a widely used Colorado River crossing near here in 1822. He and his wife Elizabeth proceeded to build a large home (also used as an inn) and established a gristmill, sawmill, gin,and ferry operation at the crossing. His residence and business operations and a scattering of homesteads in the area formed a settlement known as Beason's Crossing. In the early spring of 1836 Beason found his home, family, and complex of commercial buildings in the perilous position in between Sam Houston's Army, camped on the east bank of the Colorado River opposite Beason's crossing, and a Mexican Army led by General Juaquin Ramirez Y Sesma fast approaching from the west. Houston had chosen this site to camp because of its strategic location at the edge of the most populous part of Texas. With his 1500 troops in position, Houston is said to have declared, "on the Colorado I make my stand." Notwithstanding this bold declaration, Houston unexpectedly removed his Army to the Brazos River on March 26th. Beason's crossing was subsequently burned to the ground by a detachment of Houston's Army scarcely hours before the arrival of Sesma's Army. Sam Houston Bicentennial 1793 - 1993 #347

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Beauregard Ranch. Founded 1852, by Augustin Toutant-Beauregard, of landed Creole gentry who traced lineage to 16th century Spanish nobility. Brother was Confederate General Pierre Gustave Toutant- Beauregard. Stone-mounted iron rings were part of scaffolding used to butcher hogs. (1967) #348

US 181, S of Poth, Poth, TX, United States

Bedford Cemetery. Pioneers probably began using this graveyard during the 1860s. Earliest marked grave is that of Elizabeth White Bobo (1866-1871), whose parents came here in 1870 from Bedford County, Tenn. In 1877 Milton Moore deeded a five-acre tract, including this cemetery, to New Hope Church of Christ, now Bedford Church of Christ. The Bedford Church Old Settlers Reunion met here annually for over 50 years. W. L. Hurst (1833-1922), for whom nearby Hurst is named, is interred here. In 1975 the Bedford Cemetery Association acquired the site. Many Bedford pioneers are buried here in unmarked graves. (1979) #349

2400 Bedford Rd., Bedford, TX, United States

Bedford Church of Christ. Founded about 1874 by members of Spring Garden Church of Christ, this congregation was originally called New Hope Church of Christ. The first meetinghouse was built here on Milton Moore's farm near a small cemetery about 1874. The church has worshiped continually at this site since its beginning. Moore deeded this five acres to the congregation in 1877. During its early years the church also served as the local school. By 1900 the name Bedford Church of Christ began to be used. In 1958 the congregation gave the original buildings to a neighboring church and built a new brick auditorium. (1983) #350

2401 Bedford Rd., Bedford, TX, United States

Bee County. Named for Col. Barnard E. Bee (1787-1853), who served Republic of Texas as Secretary of War, Secretary of State, and Minister to the United States. County was created by legislative act on Dec. 8, 1857; organized Jan. 25, 1858, from land earlier in Goliad, Karnes, Live Oak, Refugio, and San Patricio counties. County seat in 1858 was on Medio Creek; since 1860 at present Beeville. A cattle region since Spanish times, Bee County became important beef producer in 1865. San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railroad provided first modern transportation in 1886. Oil was discovered here in 1929. #351

?, Pettus, TX, United States