Hamilton P. Bee. Secretary 1st Texas Senate, Legislator 1849. Speaker of House 1854-1856. Served campaigns against Comanches. Lieutenant, Cavalry, Mexican War 1846. Confederate presidential elector 1861. Brigadier General State Militia 1861. Appointed same rank Confederate Army 1862. In command Western District, Texas, keeping vital cotton road open to Mexico. Led brigade and wounded Red River Campaign 1864 to stop invasion Texas. Served Indian Territory to keep Indians and Federals in check. Returned to command cavalry division in Texas. (1963) #352

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Beer Office and Bottling Company. F. W. Grassmeyer commissioned German-Texan stonemasons to construct this Italianate style commercial building between 1856 and 1859. The structure served as a hotel until 1893, when German immigrant Fritz Presun purchased it as a regional sales office for large American breweries. In 1897 Presun added a bottling operation, The Crown Soda Factory. His son Henry continued the business and also sold oil and gas here. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1983 #353

114 S. Main St., La Grange, TX, United States

Beeville on the Poesta. Long before Mexico granted land (1834) on Poesta Creek to the first settlers, Anne Burke and James Heffernan, savage Indians roamed this valley at will. Their colony, although successful at first, soon met disaster. In 1836 James Heffernan, his brother John, and John Ryan, who had planned to join Texas patriots at Goliad, were planting a crop in a field at this site when they were massacred by Comanches. Also killed was James' family, in his picket house upcreek. Bee County was organized in 1858 and named for Col. Barnard E. Bee, a Republic of Texas statesman. Soon after, choice of a county seat came into hot dispute. A site seven miles east, on Medio Creek, was chosen for "Beeville". But ten months later, voters made the 150-acre donation of Anne Burke "O'Carroll permanent county seat, on the banks on the Poesta. The new town, first called "Maryville" for Mary Heffernan (relative of those killed in 1836) was soon renamed Beeville. In its first decade, it had two stores, one saloon, and a blacksmith shop. First courthouse was built for $750 on west side of present square, 1860. First railroad came through, 1866, and a larger courthouse was soon built. After it burned, the present one was erected in 1913. (1967) #354

?, Beeville, TX, United States

Bel-Asher. Designed by noted San Antonio architect Alfred Giles and built in 1910, this imposing structure was the home of Asher Richardson and his wife, Mary Isabelle (Belle). Richardson developed the town of Asherton, routing his railroad, the Asherton and Gulf Railway Co., through the city in 1905. Christened with a combination of the Richardsons' first names, the house has remained in the family for generations. An architectural hybrid with some prairie school style influences, Bel-Asher features native sandstone construction and large projecting eaves. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1990 #355

823 Forest Avenue, Asherton, TX, United States

Subjects
Belcherville Schools. A Bronze Medallion commerating the rural Schools of Montague County was placed at the site of one of the old schools in each precinct of the County. They designed exactly as shown on sketch but somewhat larger with the date of beginning and ending of particular school. Each medallion was imbedded in concrete marker about 3 ft. above ground. Please return sketch. Will furnish picture at later date. Glenn O. Wilson. #356

Not Located, Belcherville, TX, United States

Bell County. Settlement began on Lampasas River, 1847. Created Jan. 22, organized Aug. 1, 1850. Named for Peter Hansbrough Bell (1812-1898), native of Virginia; veteran of Battle of San Jacinto; served in Somervell expedition to stop Mexico's Raids into Texas; officer in Mexican War; Governor of Texas 1849-1853; U.S. Congressman, 1853-1857. First county seat Nolanville. Moved Dec. 16, 1851, to Belton. By 1860 population was 4,799. Sent 12 troop companies into Civil War. Furnished goods from flour mills, hat factory, tanyard, leather works, blacksmith shops, cabinet shop, beef slaughter pens. (1965) #357

?, Belton, TX, United States

Bell County Courthouses. Three Bell County courthouses have stood on this site--part of the 120 acres given by Matilda F. Connell Allen for the location of the county seat. Prior to erection of a courthouse, early official business of the county (created and organized, 1850) was handled in blacksmith shop of John Danley, the first chief justice. His anvil (in one of the three original buildings in Belton) was the council table. First courthouse was a one-story (16' x 18') frame building erected by contractor Thomas T. Havens in 1851, at cost of $199, financed by sale of city lots. On April 1, 1858, the commissioners contracted for a two-story (50' x 60') native limestone building with intersecting main halls, fireplaces on each floor, double doors and other fine details. Cost ($13,625) was so resented that none of the commissioners were re-elected. Simeon Bramlet was the contractor. This building was in service from Dec. 1, 1859, until 1884. Cornerstone for third courthouse was laid on June 24, 1884; structure was completed by May 30, 1885. Ben D. Lee contracted to build it for $64.965. It has been improved at later dates. The county clerk's office was fireproofed in 1898. In 1950, there was extensive remodeling and modernizing. (1970) #358

101 E. Central Ave., Belton, TX, United States

James Carrell Bell. Near the front entrance, first row of grave, metal marker inscribed Texas Veteran, Texas War for Independence. #359

?, Muldoon, TX, United States

Belle Plain. First official county seat of Callahan County, 1877-1883. The first unofficial county seat was Callahan City where the commissioners court was organized, July 30, 1877, and several civil and probate cases filed by an invalid election, October 13th, and a valid election, December 9, 1877 Belle Plain was selected. On January 16, 1883, the county seat was located at Baird. #360

?, Baird, TX, United States

Belle Plaine Cemetery. Residents of the short-lived community of Belle Plaine were burying their dead at this site as early as 1878. Although the presence of unmarked graves suggests earlier possible usage, the oldest marked grave, that of sixteen-year-old Virgil Hill, dates to that year. Belle Plaine residents informally established a community cemetery here on vacant land. The graveyard was located within a larger tract of land that was owned by the state until 1861 and later by several railroad companies. Its last private owner, the Texas & Pacific Railway Company, purchased the tract that included this graveyard in 1879 when it anticipated routing its railroad through Belle Plaine. However, in 1883 the route was changed to pass through nearby Baird. In response, the railway company deeded the cemetery property to Callahan County the following year. Though the community of Belle Plaine had declined by 1909, burials have continued to take place. Those interred here include area pioneers, their descendants, and veterans. The historic burial ground remains an important cultural resource in this area. (1992) #361

?, Baird, TX, United States

Bellevue-Cheapside. Pioneer area settlers, many of English descent, acquired land at this site in 1876 for the establishment of a community church, school, and burial ground. A 2-story Woodmen of the World Lodge was also located nearby. Still used, Bellevue Cemetery has served residents of the Cheapside community (1.5 miles north). Named for a well-known street in London, Cheapside was once the site of a cotton gin, grist mill, hotel, grocery stores, saloons, and a variety of other businesses. Despite the town's later decline, influences of the pioneer English settlers are still evident. #362

?, Cuero, TX, United States

Bellview Community and School. Much of this rural community's early social and religious history is closely associated with its schoolhouses. Area residents built their first schoolhouse in 1903, one year after organizing a rural school district. Named for trustee John Bell, the Bellview School began with 12 students. A 4-room school building erected near here in 1918 was the site of social and church activities for the next four decades. Bellview School was merged with Plainview schools in 1942. The last Bellview School building, once the center of community activity, fell into disrepair and was razed in 1968. 1992 #363

?, Plainview, TX, United States

Bellville Concordia. (Name adopted in 1938) Singing society organized in home of Fritz Schlecht, at Piney (3.5 mi. E), 1860. Members: Fritz Brandes, Heinrich and Gustav Koch, Joseph and Theo Menke, Herman Mueller, Fritz Schultz. Emil Koch, director. Hall (built 1877), wrecked by 1900 storm, was moved here, rebuilt same year. Land given by Henry Strauss. (1968) #364

?, Bellville, TX, United States

Site of First Bellville Masonic Lodge Building. The petition to form a Masonic lodge in Bellville was initiated by members of Chappell Hill Lodge No. 67. Bellville Lodge No. 223 was chartered in 1858. Zimri Hunt, an early Bellville lawyer, served as first Worshipful Master. In 1858, lodge members erected a two-story building at this site. Meetings were held on the upper floor, and the first floor was used for church and school purposes until 1881. Early members of the Bellville Masonic Lodge were active in political, business, educational, and religious affairs of the community. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986 #365

15 N. Masonic St., Bellville, TX, United States

Early History of Bellville Methodist Church. The heritage of Bellville Methodist Church dates to 1822, when Thomas B. Bell came to Texas from Florida with Stephen F. Austin's Old Three Hundred colonists. He settled in an area west of the Brazos River, and donated fifty acres of land between Piney and Caney Creeks to be used for a church and camp meetings. When Methodist missionary Henry Stephenson arrived in Texas in 1834, he found plans underway for a camp meeting. At an 1835 meeting, future Alamo hero William Barret Travis was a featured speaker, and promised to assist in the effort to bring Methodist preachers to Texas. Missionary Robert Alexander conducted services at the Caney Creek camp meeting site in August 1839. Methodists continued to use the campground for worship services until the early 1880s, when the land was sold. Funds from the sale were used to build a German Methodist Episcopal Church in Bellville in 1882. The building was used by German and English speaking congregations on alternate Sundays. The Methodist Episcopal Church, south, was organized in 1886, and a new sanctuary was completed on this site that year. The Rev. J.P. Childers served as the first minister. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986 #366

234 S. Masonic St., Bellville, TX, United States

Benavides Brothers. Members of a prominent Laredo family, the three Benavides brothers were the descendants of Tomas Sanchez, who founded the city in 1755. Santos (1823-1891) and Refugio Benavides (b. 1824) and their half-brother Cristobal (1839-1904) were best known for their service in the Confederate army during the Civil War (1861-1865). Santos commanded a regiment in the 33rd Texas Cavalry and rose to the rank of colonel, the highest rank achieved by a Mexican-American in the Confederate army. Both Refugio and Cristobal earned the rank of captain. Stationed along the Texas-Mexican border, the brothers encountered both bandits and Union forces. In May 1862, they defeated a large raiding party led by Juan Cortina at Carrizo (now Zapata). In March 1864, although their troops were badly outnumbered, they defended Laredo against an army of Texas unionists. Their victory helped insure continuation of the vital Confederate cotton trade between Texas and Mexico. The Benavides brothers also distinguished themselves as political, commercial, and social leaders in Laredo. Santos and Cristobal operated one of the city's most prosperous mercantile companies. Santos also served in the state legislature, 1879-1884. (1976) #367

St. Augustin Plaza, Laredo, TX, United States

Benjamin Beason's Crossing of the Colorado River. Site of the camp, March 19,-26, 1836, of the Texas Army under General Sam Houston, who directed the retreat from Gonzales to the San Jacinto. #368

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Benjamin F. Gholson. (Nov. 17, 1842-April 3, 1932) Born in Falls County. Son of early Texas settlers Albert G. and Elidia Anderson Gholson. After 1858-1859 service with Texas Rangers, he re-enlisted in company under Capt. J. M. Smith, and in 1860 aided in the rescue of Cynthia Ann Parker, kidnapped by Comanche Indians in 1836. Served in 2nd Regiment, Texas Cavalry in Civil War. Married Jane Adaline Langford. Prominent stockman, was active in the Texas Ex-Rangers Association. #369

?, Evant, TX, United States

Benjamin F. Highsmith. Served in the Army of Texas, 1835-36 a Ranger under Capt. John C. Hays, a member of the Somervell Expedition, 1842 born in Missouri Sept. 11, 1817. Died Nov. 20, 1905. His wife, Elizabeth Turner Highsmith, born in Missouri March 22, 1836, died Oct. 7, 1900. #370

SH 187, Jones Cemetery, Utopia, TX, United States

Bennet Valentine. From 1835 to his death in 1843 he fought to gain and maintain Texas Independence. #371

?, Gonzales, TX, United States

Bennett and West Ranch. Cattlemen John M. Bennett (1831-1920) and George W. West (1851-196) began buying ranch land here in Jackson County in 1875. Bennett was born in Alabama, moved to Texas in 1837, and earned his capital by driving cattle herds up the Chisholm Trail to Kansas. West was also from Alabama and settled in the Sweet Home area of Lavaca County (about 50 miles NW) near Bennett's family. The partners acquired 35,375 acres between the Garcitas and Lavaca rivers, rich with prairie grasses before the invasion of brush thickets. In 1882 West sold his half interest to his brothers Ike and Sol. By 1902 the ranch was running 7,000 head of cattle, bred from longhorns and herefords. That year Ike withdrew from the partnership and sold off his one-fourth interest in the land and cattle herd. Neither Bennett nor the Wests lived at the ranch. The nearby frame house dates from 1902 as the ranch headquarters and foreman's residence. When Bennett and Sol West died in 1920, the land was divided between the Bennetts on the Garcitas River, and the Wests on the Lavaca River. From 1924 to 1978, three generations of the James family, beginning with Daniel Arthur James (1886-1943), served as foremen of the Bennett Ranch. #372

?, La Salle, TX, United States

Benton City Cemetery. Benton City Cemetery (Established 1870). First public cemetery in this community, which was famous in early days for its outstanding school, aggressive businesses, and newspaper, the Benton City "Era." Site was given by James M. Jones, farmer-livestock raiser and leading citizen, whose rock house stood nearby. Jones and family moved here in 1869, when Atascosa County (with Amphion the county seat) was a frontier region of south Texas. Interred here are pioneers and veterans of Indian warfare, the Civil War, World War I, World War II, and other conflicts. #373

?, Lytle, TX, United States

Benton House. Victorian Gingerbread Cottage. Erected by pioneer businessman Meredith A. Benton in 1898, when the 4-lot site was "out in the country," and young Mrs. Benton (formerly of St. Louis) feared the Wild West. Designed by builder's father, house has central hall, six rooms, tiled fireplaces. Mrs. Benton, an active civic worker, helped plant rose beds that now are part of famous Fort Worth Botanic Gardens. Benton family lived here until 1942. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark- 1971. Marked by Junior League of Fort Worth. #374

1730 Sixth Ave., Fort Worth, TX, United States

Bents Creek. Named for Charles (1799-1847) and William Bent (1809-1869), famed for frontier trading with mountain men and "wild" Indians. As early as 1835 they came from their headquarters near present La Junta, Colorado, to trade with the Kiowas and Comanches along the Canadian River, in this vicinity. They built at least three posts along the river and tributary creeks; most permanent post was Fort Adobe, built 1843-1844. In the ruins of this fort (northeast of here) Kit Carson fought his last big Indian battle (1854), and buffalo hunters and Indians fought the Battle of Adobe Walls in 1874. (1971) #375

?, Borger, TX, United States

Bentsen-Rio Grande Valley State Park. Before colonization, this valley was a lush thicket of woodlands and brush, nourished with rich soil deposited by the Rio Grande. Throughout the lower valley landscape represented a broad variety of plants and animals. Types more common north of the river coexisted here with those more common to the south. Land grants were made to the original Spanish settlers of the Rio Grande Valley in the 18th century. The divisions were called porciones, each a narrow strip of land with access to the river. The grant here was part of porcion 50, awarded to Jose Antonio Zamora by the ancient jurisdiction of Reynosa (Mexico). At the beginning of the 20th century, developers and farmers began large-scale clearing of the land. By the 1930s, much of the Rio Grande Valley had been cleared for citrus groves. In 1944, more than 586 acres of native landscape here were saved and donated to the Texas State Parks Board. Cedar elm, hackberry, and mesquite mix with ebony, Mexican ash, and anaqua trees. Along with the brushlands, they provide habitat for countless mammals, reptiles, and resident and migrant birds. The park preserves a part of the valley's ancient environment for the education and enjoyment of its visitors. The parkland was donated on January 28, 1944 to the State Parks Board by Lloyd M. and Edna Ruth (Dolly) Bentsen, and Elmer C. and Marie J. Bentsen. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836 - 1986 #376

?, Mission vicinity, TX, United States

Fred Metzger House. From Application for Texas Historical Building Medallion: Brick, partial two-story, inner walls also solid brick, hand-carved staircase, other hand-carved interior features, tongue-and-grooved wood ceilings. #377

?, Hondo, TX, United States

Bermuda Valley Farm. Site of noted race track (50 yards N) laid out 1889 by Dr. I. E. Clark, State Senator and physician who owned this farm. Although he had planned a 1/2-mile oval track, the course he traced (free style) in his buggy measured 5/8 mile. Later it was graded, using mule-drawn "Fresnos" (old-fashioned scoops for moving earth). The track was chartered 1894 by the state for the Schulenburg Livestock and Fair Association. Famous horses ran here in its heyday. Here, too, Clark and son Harvey bred 2 of Texas' most famous horses "Orb" and "My Dandy." Cars later raced here. #378

?, Schulenburg, TX, United States

Bernard Scherrer. (1807 -1892) Bernard Scherrer left his native Switzerland at the age of 22 for extended travels before reaching Texas in 1833. After serving in Burleson's regiment during the Texas Revolution, he received a land grant in Colorado County but settled in Biegel settlement (Fayette County) about 1838. Here he served as justice of the peace, county commissioner, and in 1845 he married Gesine Eliza Margarete Koch. He left his civic, farming and freighting duties to serve in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. This cabin, Scherrer's first residence in Texas, was moved to this location in 1975. #379

?, Round Top, TX, United States

Berry-Vickrey House. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1962 (medallion only) #380

680 N. Main St., Salado, TX, United States

John Paney Bertrand. John Raney Bertrand was born in Brazoria County, the son of French immigrants who came to Texas before the Texas Revolution. He was a partner in a mercantile business in Washington County for several years before leaving to join the Confederate Army in the Civil War. In 1869 he married Mary Frances Cayce, and moved to Coryell County in 1875, settling on 312 acres. He built a log cabin for his family of eight children, raised livestock and farmed the land. #381

?, Purmela, TX, United States

Beseler Family. Carl Joseph and Augusta Beseler and their two sons immigrated from Germany to Texas in 1848. They settled in Kendall County on a land grant in the 1850s. The community of Welfare was established on the Beseler land grant. The Beselers' son Ernst died in the Battle of Nueces. His brother Carl Philipp was instrumental in building Welfare into a railroad shipping point in the 1880s. Carl Philipp served as justice of the peace, postmaster, county commissioner, and tax assessor. The general store is among the few physical remnants of the community of Welfare. (1996) #382

?, Welfare, TX, United States

Beseler House. Civic leader and Boerne businessman Maxmillian Beseler (1866-1939) had this stone Victorian cottage built for his parents, Charles and Minna Beseler, in 1903. A native of Prussia, Charles Beseler came to Texas in 1848 and served for many years as a Kendall County public official. Constructed by Ed Clemens of locally quarried rock, the home features a curved front porch, decorative woodwork, and shingle detailing. It remained in the Beseler family for over 80 years. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1985. #383

518 North Main Street, Boerne, TX, United States

Bessie. The steamboat "Bessie", last of the Mifflin Kenedy-Richard King Rio Grande shipping fleet of the mid-1800s, carried this 400-pound bell instead of a whistle. After its final trip on the river in 1902, the bell "Bessie" was used until 1909 on John Closner's plantation east of Hidalgo. A dispute over its ownership delayed the purchase of "Bessie" by Sacred Heart Catholic Church in McAllen, and saved it when a fire destroyed (1924) the church. In 1926 it was placed in the rebuilt church. Cracked in 1937, and recast from original metal, the bell was later moved here to St. Joseph the Worker Church. (1975) #384

900 S. 23rd, McAllen, TX, United States

Best Theatre Building. Constructed by town founder Thomas M. West and local contractor J.W. Bridges about 1890, this building housed two saloons until prohibition in 1919 promoted its conversion into a grocery store and bakery. Jim Tobola modified the building in 1923 to house the Best Theatre, which offered vaudeville, local entertainment, and movies before closing in 1976. The building's whimsical architecture includes metal semicular awnings and cast concrete globe-like finials. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1994 #386

218 N Main, West, TX, United States

Beth-el Congregation. The beginnings of a Reform Jewish Community in Fort Worth date to 1879, when the Hebrew Benevolent Society opened a Sabbath School, and early services were held in homes. About 1900, under the leadership of Henry Gernsbacher (1858-1936), enthusiasm began to grow,and in 1902 a call was issued in the area for the organization of a formal congregation. Forty-three people gathered to found the Beth-el Congregation, and Sam Levy (1856-1927) was elected president. The Fort Worth section of the National Counsel of Jewish Women donated funds to bring a Rabbi to conduct High Holy Days services. The early days of the congregation were difficult ones, with services being held sporadically. For a time, student Rabbis from Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati conducted services for High Holy Days. In 1904 a Rabbi was hired, and the congregation met in rented quarters. A lot was bought on the corner of Fifth and Taylor streets in 1907, and a Temple was built in 1908. By 1919 the congregation had outgrown the buildings and a new Temple was built on this site. Soon after a 25th Anniversary Celebration, the temple was destroyed by fire on August 29, 1946. Beth-El Temple was rebuilt, and dedicated on January 7, 1949. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986. #387

207 W. Broadway, Fort Worth, TX, United States

Bethel Baptist Church. Lacking church facilities in their "North-end" African American neighborhood, Harris and Maria Anderson began to hold lay services in their home about 1904. They built a brush arbor and in 1905 organized the Bethel Baptist Church with the Rev. Joe Wren as its first pastor. The church met in a building relocated to this site in 1906. The congregation erected its first sanctuary here in 1910. It was eventually razed and replaced with a brick church building in 1954. The church has maintained a tradition of pride in its facilities and continues to serve the community. (1993) #388

1200 Ave C, Bay City, TX, United States

Bethel Community. Settlement of this area began in the 1850s. Among the pioneer families were those of Samuel K. Smith, Anderson Nowlin, William Crawford, and Sam Lusk. As family farms were established, a loosely organized rural community was formed. By the 1870s more people had moved to the area, including the F. M. Frie family. The Frie and Nowlin families both set aside land for school and church purposes. A one-room schoolhouse built on the Nowlin land about 1871 became known as Frie School. It also served as a Union church and community center. A church building was erected on Frie land in 1882. After Bethel Presbyterian Church was organized in 1883, the school and community took the Bethel name At its height in the early 20th century, Bethel community included about one hundred families. After it was bypassed by the railroad in 1875, Bethel began to decline in favor of Lewisville. The Bethel School consolidated with the Lewisville School system in 1940, and the area once encompassed by farms of the Bethel Community eventually became parts of several towns, including Flower Mound, Lewisville, Highland Village, and Copper Canyon. (1990) #389

2100 Kirkpatrick Ln., Flower Mound, TX, United States

Bethel Lutheran Church. Situated on ranch land of family of S. M. Swenson, banker who in 1850s underwrote Swedish migration to Texas. Church forms center for Ericksdahl community, founded 1905 by Swedes formerly living near Austin. Visiting pastors L. J. Sundquist and J. A. Stamline held first church service in the N. M. Segerstrom home in February 1905; congregation organized January 25, 1906. Charter members: Elias Bjorn, the J. P. Hokanson Family, Algot Johnson, John Lunn family, Oscar Magnuson, Theodore Pearson, John Peterson, the Segerstrom family, C. G. Seth family, Eric Seth, A. J. Swenson family, Mr. and Mrs. Bud Swenson. The first sanctuary was built in 1907. First resident pastors: the Rev. Theodore Seashore (1908-12), the Rev. Eric Swanson (1912-13), the Rev. Carl Henderson (1914-19). Dr. Hugo B. Haterius (pastor 1919-68) served 27 years as president of the Texas Conference of the Augustana Lutheran Church of America. As focus for community, church has recorded such lay events as opening of first school and formation of brass band, 1908; organization of local telephone company, 1917; construction of "Swede" dam, 1922-24; the first cotton gin, 1924; opening of local oil field (with 3 producing wells, 1938-65, on church property). Pastor since 1968: the Rev. Stanley D. Jurgenson. (1971) #390

?, Avoca, TX, United States

Bethel Primitive Baptist Church. Bethel Primitive Baptist Church originated in the Palo Alto Community, which was located about 3.5 miles northeast of present Killeen. Organized about 1864, the congregation met in a Union Church building shared with other denominations. When the Gulf, Colorado, and Santa Fe Railroad was built through Bell County in 1882, the town of Killeen grew up along the rail line. The Palo Alto post office was discontinued, and the community declined after most of the residents moved to Killeen. By 1889 Bethel Primitive Baptists Church had relocated to this site. Exhibiting design elements characteristic of the late 19th century, this structure is believed to be the oldest church building in Killeen. Its features include a steep gable roof, double-door entry with Gothic-inspired window details, and simple windows with protruding lintels. A part of Bell County history for well over a century, Bethel Primitive Baptist Church continues to serve a small congregation. It stands as a reminder of early settlement and rural vernacular architecture. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1990 #391

400 S. Gray, Killeen, TX, United States

Bethel Salter A.M.E. Church. Salter Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church was established in Cleburne in 1887 by the Goodwin and Sims families, with help from Allen Chapel A.M.E. Church in Fort Worth, and was named for Bishop Moses B. Salter (1841-1913). The first church building was built on East Chambers Street, followed by a sanctuary erected on Brazos Street in 1918. The Sanctuary was relocated here in 1926 on land donated by the Charles Alexander family with funding help from the Grand Lodge Colored Knights of Pythias of Texas. A community church was formed in Oak Hill south of Cleburne and formally recognized by the A.M.E. Conference of Texas in the 1940s. The church was named Greater Bethel A.M.E. Church. In 1943 a building was purchased for a sanctuary and moved to Oak Hill. Both churches had experienced a decline in membership, and officially merged into one congregation in 1988, named Bethel Salter A.M.E. Church. The aging sanctuary was torn down, and a new church building was constructed with the help of community volunteers and completed in 1992. The church continues traditional outreach programs and has as its creed "everlasting commitment to God our father, Christ our redeemer, and man our brother." (1996) #392

?, Cleburne, TX, United States

Bethel Strawn. An 1858 settler and leading citizen of Palo Pinto County. Enlisted 1864 in Co. B. 1st Frontier District, Texas State Troops, in Maj. Wm. Quayle's command. Saw service mainly in keeping down Indian depredations and protecting settlements that were furnishing food, salt, hides, leather and other goods to aid the Confederate cause during the Civil War. In 1880, when Texas and Pacific Railroad built through western Palo Pinto County, a stop was named for Bethel Strawn, who owned land at that point. By 1885, Strawn settlement had grown into a town drawing off people from old Palo Pinto. During 20th century oil developments, the name Strawn is used for petroleum bearing formations of rock that underlie this county and other areas. Strawn minerals include coal, once mined locally. 36 Texas counties were named for men prominent in the Confederacy during the Civil War. One county, Val Verde, was named for a Civil War battlefield on which Texas troops were victorious during the New Mexico-Arizona campaign of 1861-1862. 41 Texas towns were named for men who figured in the Civil War. Strawn, however, is the one geological name commemorating a Texan in the Civil War. (1965) #393

?, Strawn, TX, United States

Bethesda Cemetery. Settlers in the 1860s called this area Dry Creek but renamed it Bethesda Community in 1876 after they built a schoolhouse used for Methodist worship. John G. Leach (1846-1930) and John Marshall Coalson (1826-1897) gave land near the school for a cemetery in 1877 when Leach's daughter Minnie E. (1872-1961) seemed near death with diphtheria. She recovered and the earliest marked grave is that of Charlie A. Walker (1879-1880). Childhood mortality accounts for many graves in the older part of the cemetery. Descendants of pioneer families donated land in 1973 to enlarge the site to five acres. (1978) #394

FM 113, off US 180 about 17 mi. from Weatherford, Bethesda, TX, United States

Bethesda Community. The Bethesda Community traces its history to 1853, when pioneer farmer David R. Jackson donated land for a community cemetery. Unmarked graves date to 1844, and the earliest marked burials are from 1856. Bethesda Baptist Church was organized on August 13, 1855. It was the First Baptist Church in the county and was called Cross Timbers Bethesda Baptist Church. Services were held in a log cabin. Initially served by circuit riding ministers, the church's first pastor was William Robinson. A Sunday School was organized in 1887. Services were held monthly until 1944, when weekly meetings were begun. After the original log cabin church burned in 1878, a new wooden structure was built. A brick sanctuary was constructed in 1959, and became a fellowship hall in 1980 when a new facility was completed. A community school was organized in 1855. Located at the head of Crill Miller Creek, it was called Crill Miller School. In 1918 it was consolidated with the Post Oak and Village Creek Schools to form Bethesda School. A four-room schoolhouse was built and served as a center for many community activities. Bethesda School was incorporated into the Burleson Independent School District in 1950. #395

?, Burleson, TX, United States

Bethlehem Lutheran Church. A center of Lutheran faith in Fayette County. Dedicated 10-28-66 with Rev. Adam. Neuthard as first pastor. Unique pipe organ of cedar built by Traugott Wantke. Stone construction shows German architectural style. #396

?, Round Top, TX, United States

Bethlehem Lutheran Church. The Rev. Christian Oefinger, serving as pastor of the Castroville Lutheran Church, led in founding this congregation in March 1852. The first church building was dedicated in 1854, coincidental with a synod convention held in Castroville. Bethlehem Lutheran Church hosted synod meetings in 1869, 1875, and 1894. The present brick structure, dedicated in 1914, was built largely by parishioners. St. John's Lutheran Church of New Fountain, founded in the late 1850s by the Rev. A. Kitterer and served by Bethlehem's pastor, merged with this congregation in 1949. 1977 #397

?, Quihi, TX, United States

Beverly-Harris House. Warren Tully Beverly (1857-1903) was a native of Collin County, attending Spring Creek School and Plano Institute. He studied law in the office of Joseph W. Baines, grandfather of Lyndon Baines Johnson. Beverly served as county attorney and later as judge of the 59th district court. In 1886 he built this Victorian house for his family. In 1903 it was sold to Louisa Kirkpatrick Harris. Members of the Harris family lived here until 1960. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1979*** #398

604 Parker St., McKinney, TX, United States

Bexar County Courthouse. This courthouse occupies the south side of Main Plaza, formerly called "La Plaza de las Islas", as originally laid out by the Canary Islanders in 1731. As it was then, this plaza is the administrative and judicial heart of Bexar County. This is the fourth edifice to house the government of the county since Texas entered the United States. The citizens authorized $621,000 worth of bonds in the 1890s to finance its construction. James Riely Gordon (1863-1937), architect for many imposing public buildings, including at least one state capitol, submitted the award-winning Romanesque design for this courthouse. The builders were George Dugan, David Hughes, and Otto P. Kroeger. The foundation was laid in 1891, and the structure was completed in 1896. Native Texas granite and red sandstone are basic materials of the massive building. Towers roofed in green tile and red tile, handsome columns and arches, carvings, and many fine interior details gave the edifice great distinction. Additions in 1914 and 1926 continued the use of Texas granite and sandstone. Expansions in 1963, 1970, and 1973 employed other materials, however, and also altered portions of the original design. (1976) #399

100 Dolorosa, San Antonio, TX, United States

Bexar County under Nine Governments. The administrative government of Bexar County, besides being the oldest in Texas, is distinguished by having served under nine governments. The community served under Spanish rule from May, 1718, until January, 1811, when it was taken over by the revolutionary "Casas regime". Only five weeks later, the "counter-revoluationary Junta of Bexar" overthrew the Casas government and eventually restored Spanish rule. In April, 1812, however, the "Republican Army of the North" deposed the provincial Spanish government and declared independence from Spain. Five months later the Spanish regained control, holding Texas until 1821. The fifth regime, "First Imperial Government of Mexico" was created when Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821. The emperor relinquished control to army leaders within two years, however, and the "Republic of Mexico" was established. Texas gained independence from Mexico in 1836, thereby establishing Bexar's seventh government, the "Republic of Texas". In 1845, Texas became the twenty-eighth state of the United States and remained in the Union until 1861, when the southern states seceeded to from the Confederacy. Following the Civil War, U.S. rule returned to Bexar County in 1865. (1967) #400

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Bidault House. Constructed of molded concrete blocks, this house was designed and built by French native Anthlem Bidault (1862-1951), a farmer and wine maker. Started in 1905, the house was completed six years later. Bidault's farm became noted for its orchards, berry fields, and vineyard. During World War I French soldiers stationed at Camp Bowie near Fort Worth were entertained in the house. The Bidaults and their unmarried children returned to France in 1920. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1980 #401

1416 Glade Road, Colleyville, TX, United States

Here William Alexander A. Wallace known as Big Foot Wallace. Defender of Texas and Texans as soldier ranger and mailrider, he protected the advancing frontier. Died January 7, 1899. #404

?, Bigfoot, TX, United States