United States / Brownsville, TX

all or unphotographed
Original Fort Brown Site (Fort Brown Earthworks). This earthen fort was built by Gen. Zachary Taylor's troops in 1846 and was originally called both "Fort Taylor" and "Fort Texas". The fort featured bastion walls 9 1/2 feet high forming an irregular six-point star. Most sections of the earthworks were destroyed early in this century by levee construction. An original breastwork section is visible in the distance, now lower in height due to erosion. The Mexican siege and bombardment of this fort was a precipitating event in the Mexican - American War. Gen. Taylor officially named the site Fort Brown "in memory of the gallant Commander who nobly fell in its defense." Funding provided by Anthony K. Knopp

, Brownsville, TX, United States

Manautou Building. #17316

1201 E Washington Street, Brownsville, TX, United States

Yturria Bank. Application for Texas Historical Building Medallion included. #5933

1253 E. Elizabeth Street, Brownsville, TX, United States

Battle of Resaca de la Palma. Was fought here May 9, 1846; And the defeat of the Mexican Army under General Mariano Arista by the United States troops under General Zachary Taylor made good the claim of Texas to the territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande #328

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Browne-Wagner House. This structure, with its molded cornice, is a good example of the large brick residences erected in Brownsville in the late 19th Century. It was built in 1894 for Mary Josephine Glaevecke Browne, widow of Cameron County Sheriff Matthew L. ("Theo") Browne. The architect was Samuel W. Brooks (1829-1903), who designed many public and private buildings in this area. Martha Landrum (Mrs. Robert E.) Wagner, descendant of two pioneer families, bought the house in 1920. #536

245 E. St. Charles St., Brownsville, TX, United States

Cameron County Courthouse of 1883-1914. Completed in 1883, this was the first courthouse built by Cameron County officials, who previously rented or purchased office space. This three-story brick structure served as the county courthouse until 1914, when a new building was erected. Rio Grande Lodge No. 81, A.F.&A.M., then occupied this structure. The original roof, with its gables and central tower, was removed during remodeling. #640

1131 E. Jefferson St., Brownsville, TX, United States

Cameron County. Created February 21, 1848; From Nueces County; Organized August 7, 1848; Named in honor of Ewen Cameron, 1811-1843; Captain in the Mier Expedition; Shot at Queretaro; County Seat, Santa Rita 1848-1849; Brownsville, since the earliest battles of the Mexican War, and the last battle of the Civil War were fought in this county #639

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Cavazos House. Fannie Seward Cavazos (1844-1928) moved from Ohio during the Civil War to Bagdad, Mexico. She came to Brownsville in 1870 with her husband, Wenceslao Cavazos. After his death in 1882 Fannie began a successful Mexican-style lace drawnwork business. She helped establish the Mexican Presbyterian Church in Brownsville. This home, built in 1905 for Fannie Cavazos by her daughters, is a good example of a Late Victorian cottage and features decorative woodwork. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1984 #768

608 E. Adams St., Brownsville, TX, United States

Thornton Skirmish. The spot where "American blood was shed on American soil" April 25, 1846; here Captain Seth B. Thornton and 62 dragoons were attacked by Mexican troops. #5478

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Cisneros House. Local architect Jose Colunga (1882-1946) built this house for businessman Jose A. Cisneros, Sr. (1887-1963). A hallmark example of the Spanish Colonial Revival style when completed in 1926, the structure's current Eclectic appearance dates to 1933, when a Classical Revival porch was added. Original Spanish Colonial Revival elements, such as tiled pent awnings, remain. Owned by Mr. Cisneros until 1945, the house was purchased by the family again in 1979. #866

451 E. Adams St., Brownsville, TX, United States

Fort Brown. Oldest permanent fort in Texas; Called Fort Taylor in March, 1846; Later renamed in honor of Major Jacob Brown killed here in May, 1846; Permanent post established, 1849; Evacuated by Federal troops in 1861, by Confederates, 1863; Reoccupied by United States troops from 1865 to 1906; Again reoccupied by United States troops in 1913 #1963

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

First Presbyterian Church of Brownsville. This church, organized by The Rev. Hiram Chamberlain and 19 charter members in 1850, is Brownsville's oldest Presbyterian congregation. Services were held on a river boat and in several sanctuaries before this structure was built by the San Antonio construction company in 1927. A well-preserved example of a 20th Century Gothic Revival sanctuary, it features cast stone detailing, Gothic arches and windows, and irregularly arranged tower and bays. The congregation continues to serve the area. #1830

435 Palm Blvd., Brownsville, TX, United States

Fort Brown Cavalry Barracks. This building, associated with the rebuilding of Fort Brown after the Civil War, housed cavalry units until World War I, when it served as a quartermaster warehouse and commissary. Closed after World War II, the building was leased by private industry until purchased by Texas Southmost College. The one-story brick structure features an elongated T-plan, with a central entry through an arched opening, and reconstructed shed-roof porches. #1965

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Fort Brown Commissary/Guardhouse. Constructed in 1905 to serve as a food storage facility, this building was abandoned one year later when Fort Brown was closed. Upon reactivation of the post during Mexican border disturbances, the building served as a guardhouse and jail. Among those quartered here were political refugees following the Battle of Matamoros on June 4, 1913. The structure features a loading dock and a shed roof with gabled dormer over the entrance. #1969

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Fort Brown, Texas. Fort Taylor, renamed Fort Brown, May 17, 1846, in honor of Major Jacob Brown, 7th Infantry, who died here May 9, 1846, in its defense; Garrisoned by the 7th Infantry with Companies "I" 2nd Art. and "E" 3rd Artillery. Original dimensions: Earthwork of 800 yards perimeter, 6 bastion walls 9 1/2 ft. high, parapet 15 ft. wide, ditch 8 1/2 feet deep, 15 to 20 feet wide. Lieut. Thomas Barlow Chapter, D.A.R. 1938 (Marble slab mounted on concrete foundation. Erected by Fort Brown, U.S. Government.) (Said to have been in use somewhat, supplemented by barracks where Zachary Taylor Library is.) #1971

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Fort Brown, Buildings 85 and 86. Morgue and linen storage. 1867 Fort Brown Buildings 85 and 86. Brick fringe, cornice. Autopsies in yellow fever study were made here by Dr. Wm. C. Gorgas, Capt. Hennessey, Lt. Crowder, Dr. Melon, defying orders of superior officer. Dr. Gorgas became immune. #1964

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes. This brick and stone Grotto was constructed about 1869-70 on the grounds of the convent of the congregation of the incarnate word and blessed sacrament, a cloistered order. Built under the supervision of Sister Theresa Solis and opened to the public in 1926, it contains petrified wood from Roma (120 miles northwest) and stones from European Grottos and the Grave of St. Theresa. The convent was demolished in 1969 and the Grotto was relocated here. #2290

700 W. Jefferson, Brownsville, TX, United States

Home of Charles Stillman, 1810-1875. Brownsville home of Charles Stillman, 1810-1875; founder of Brownsville and partner in firm of M. Kenedy and Company, which opened the Rio Grande to steamboat navigation and controlled much of the commerce of Northern Mexico, 1848-1868. This house, erected about 1850, was the birthplace of James Stillman, President of the National City Bank of New York, 1891-1909. #2531

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Immaculate Conception Cathedral. Mass was first celebrated in this area in 1849 by the oblates of Mary Immaculate. This church building was completed ten years later. Father Peter Yves Keralum designed the structure, which features Gothic Revival styling. The rectory was the site of the first Texas oblate seminary and served as a haven for priests fleeing revolutions in Mexico. Immaculate Concepcion first became a Cathedral in 1874 when bishop Dominic Manucy lived here. The designation was not granted again until 1965, when Brownsville was named the seat of the newly formed diocese. #2617

1218 E. Jefferson St., Brownsville, TX, United States

Jefferson Davis - President C.S.A.. Commemorating the services to the United States of America of Jefferson Davis - President C.S.A. Graduated West Point 1828; Served on Indian Frontier 1828-1835; United States Congress 1845-1846; U.S.A. Col. Commanding Miss. Troops, Landed Point Isabel, Texas, 1846. Hero of Bueno Vista and Monterey; Declined Post Brigadier General U.S.A. Secretary of War 1853-1857; U.S. Senator (Miss.) 1849, '51, '57, '61 (Resigned); Soldier - Statesman - Martyr; Erected by United Daughters of the Confederacy 1926 #2747

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Kowalski-Dennett Home. French mansard house built 1893 for Louis and Amelia Kowalski by S.W. Brooks, designer of many public structures. Kowalski, a customhouse broker, was Cameron County treasurer, then district clerk for more than 40 years. Also prominent in the area were Jesse and Mary Dennett, who bought the house in 1926. Dennett's maternal grandfather came here 1846 in Mexican war; paternal grandfather came 1866 with U.S. Army of observation. #2976

507 SE Elizabeth St., Brownsville, TX, United States

La Madrilena. A native of Spain, Adrian Ortiz (1860-1957) emigrated to Brownsville before he was 18 and lived with relatives who trained him as a merchant. He built this structure in 1892 to house his mercantile operation, La Madrilena (native of Madrid), an important community business for over 60 years. The vernacular store building features corbeled brickwork, parapets with pinnacles, and paneled doors with transoms. #3000

1002 E. Madison, Brownsville, TX, United States

Las Rucias. Colonel John S. Ford of the Confederate Army defeated the Union Forces June 25, 1864. #3041

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Launching Site of First U.S. Army Warplane. From Old Fort Brown Cavalry Drill Field, near this spot, was made the first flight of a U.S. Army plane to be fired upon in armed hostilities, April 20, 1915. Two Signal Corps officers, Lts. Byron Q. Jones and Thos. Milling, flew a Martin T.O. Curtiss 75 on the border to spot movements of Mexican revolutionist Pancho Villa. They reached 2,600 feet; were up 20 minutes. Though they did not cross the Rio Grande, the plane was hit by machine gun and small arms fire. Their patrols lasted 6 weeks. Planes were used more effectively in fighting against Villa in 1916. #3048

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Bagdad-Matamoros, C.S.A.. Civil War "Sister Cities", across the river in neutral Mexico. Were linked to Texas by a ferry which landed here. Ferry hauled to Matamoros the Confederate cotton brought from East Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas to Brownsville. In Matamoros, many speculators and agents vied for cotton to ship to Europe, via Havana. They offered in exchange vital goods: guns, ammunition, drugs, shoes, cloth. At Bagdad, on the Gulf, cotton was loaded from small boats onto ships riding the Gulf of Mexico. Goods crossing here were the South's lifeblood. #275

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Neale House. Southern Colonial house of Wm. Neale, Englishman who was in Navy of Mexico in early 1820's, operated Matamoros to Boca Del Rio Stage Line, and lived here 1834 to 1896. Built of imported lumber. Of fine workmanship. During 1859 Cortina's War, Wm. Peter Neale, a son of the builder, was killed in right front room. #3559

230 Fort Brown, Brownsville, TX, United States

Public Market and Town Hall. Authorized 1850. On land deeded forever for this purpose. Butchers, other vendors moved in during 1851. Building complete with top story and bell tower, 1852. Town hall over market used for Presbyterian church services. In high wind of 1867 lost its second floor. Restored 1868. Remodeled 1912, 1948. Original foundations and walls still survive in the modern market. #4135

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Pan American Airways Blind Flying School. The development of Mexican oil fields by North American corporations during the 1920s led to a need for reliable transportation into Mexico's interior. As a result, Brownsville soon became a pioneer training center for the now highly technical craft of blind flying, or piloting an aircraft by the use of navigation instruments. In 1929, the Mexican division of Pan American Airways opened a school for instrumentation flying at the Brownsville Airport. The training course was later extended to all divisions of the company. #3924

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Post Hospital. In March 1868, Captain William Alonzo Wainwright arrived in Brownsville to supervise the rebuilding of Fort Brown following the Civil War and an 1867 hurricane. One of the first structures built under his direction was the Post Hospital, completed in 1869 and noted for its classical design and Palladian influences. First Lt. William C. Gorgas began studies that led to the discovery of the source of yellow fever while he was based here in 1883. #4086

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Post Hospital Annex. Completed in 1869 during the rebuilding of Fort Brown by Captain William Alonzo Wainwright, the Post Hospital Annex (also known as the Medical Laboratory), was constructed to house personnel assigned to work in the nearby Post Hospital. A finely crafted, classically influenced building, it subsequently was used as a medical laboratory, for storage purposes, and as a dispensary. #4087

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Rancho Viejo. Here Jose Salvador de la Garza built his ranch El Espiritu Santo in 1771; First European settlement in Cameron County #4181

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Rabb Plantation. #17140

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

San Roman Building. Erected 1850 for Don Jose San Roman, native of Biscay, Spain--importer, steamboat owner, merchant, investor in city lots. He and successor, Feliciano San Roman, backed the Rio Grande Railroad. Fulgencio Lopez was last of San Romans in charge here. #4553

1245 E. Elizabeth Street, Brownsville, TX, United States

Santa Rita. Here was Santa Rita; First Anglo-American settlement on lower Rio Grande and county seat of Cameron County; 1848 1849 #4586

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Southern Pacific Depot. Need Text #4985

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Tijerina House. A descendant of the 18th Century Rio Grande settler Blas de la Garza Falcon, Tomas Tijerina (1860-1932) moved to this site in 1904. His original frame house was moved to the back of the lot in 1912 when the present brick home was built. Tijerina, a deputy sheriff for many years, designed the residence and his neighbor Teodoro Perez served as general carpenter. The exterior brick walls are supported by brick buttresses for protection from hurricane winds. #5491

333 E. Adams, Brownsville, TX, United States

Old Grammar School. Although public education in Cameron County had begun in 1854, the city of Brownsville was able to set up its own public school system in 1875, with classes held in various buildings throughout the city. In 1887 Captain William Kelly, chairman of the board of trustees, began a reorganization of the school system and called J. Frank Cummings to be superintendent of the Brownsville Schools. Cummings, a native of Brownsville, led the board of trustees to erect a centrally located school building on property that was donated by the city council. In October 1889 the Brownsville Public School, which housed the Grammar, Junior, and Senior High classes, opened at this site. The building originally had 12 rooms on two floors, crowned by a cupola, and was expanded as enrollment increased. Supt. Cummings and 12 teachers taught the 9 grades. The first graduates, Aggie Willman and Annie Russell, received their diplomas in 1890. Although the original building was razed in 1929, the present school was constructed with some of the bricks from the old school. In continuous use as a location for education since 1889, this site maintains an important link to the city's early history. #4851

730 E. 8th St., Brownsville, TX, United States

Commissary-Guard House. #15294

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Church of the Advent. One of the earliest Episcopal churches organized in Texas, this congregation was founded in 1851. The Rev. William Passmore served as first Rector, and by 1854 a church building was completed in the downtown area. Destroyed by a hurricane in 1867, it was rebuilt by 1877. The current building was designed by Scottish architect Thomas McLaren and built in 1926-1927. The Mission style structure features a domed tower, barrel tile roof, and curvilinear parapet. #856

104 W. Elizabeth, Brownsville, TX, United States

Barreda House. This house was designed by architect Ben Clark and built in 1928-1929 for the firm of Barnes and Kenny for the family of Celestino Pardo Barreda (1858-1953). A 2-story buff brick Spanish Colonial Revival style house, it features twisted cast stone columns, iron balcony railings, a Mission parapet, and a sunroom with arched wood casement windows. Barreda, a native of Spain who came to Texas in 1872, owned a mercantile business and became an influential area commercial leader involved in banking and agriculture. The house has remained in the Barreda Family for more than 60 years. #308

642 E. Washington Street, Brownsville, TX, United States

1912 Cameron County Jail. Originally built as a three-story structure in 1912, this building, Cameron County's second jailhouse, was enlarged with the addition of a 4th floor about 1929. The 1912 structure was designed by prominent architect Atlee B. Ayers and the 1929 addition by Ayers and his son and partner Robert Ayers. The building's classical revival style is a distinctive design for this type of resource. A one-story frame building was erected in the courtyard in the 1940s. The building served as Cameron County Jail and Sheriff's Office until 1978. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1994 #31

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Brownsville, C.S.A.. A major center of activity for Confederacy, chief depot for war material and supplies imported from Europe through neutral port of Bagdad, Mexico. Terminus of cotton road. Point of entry and departure for important personages of South in intercourse with outside world. Occupied by large Federal expeditionary force Nov. 6, 1863 after Confederates had destroyed Ft. Brown, cotton, commissary stores and supplies and had withdrawn. Became temporary seat of Union State Government with Texan A.J. Hamilton Military Governor. (BACK SIDE BROWNSVILLE, C.S.A.) When Confederate forces reoccupied Brownsville July 30, 1864 it resumed its importance as South's supply source and terminus of cotton road. Cotton export through Brownsville and other Rio Grande points means of survival of Confederacy west of the Mississippi. Imports from Europe and Mexico formed almost entire supply for military and civilian Gen. Magruder, Gen. Bee, Col. "Rip" Ford and other prominent Confederate officers headquarters here. Center of international intrigue throughout war. #538

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

The Gem. Built in 1848 for J.E. Garey and Company, this structure under subsequent ownership has housed a "drinking house", boutique and was the residence of Brownsville's first mayor, Robert S. Leman. The Gem is an excellent local example of mid-19th century commercial architecture influenced by vernacular traditions. Features include a five-bay facade, second floor balcony with full-length shutters, first floor french doors, and detailed corbelled brickwork. #5344

400 E. 13th Street, Brownsville, TX, United States

Hebrew Cemetery. Jewish settlers came to the Brownsville/Matamoros area in the mid-1840's. In 1868 one half acre of land next to the city cemetery was purchased by the Hebrew Benevolent society from Charles Stillman for $1. Victims of an 1858 yellow fever epidemic, who were originally buried in the city cemetery, were later reinterred here. This was the only Jewish burial ground to serve the lower Texas Valley and Matamoros until 1950. Among the many civic and business leaders buried here are immigrants from Europe and Veterans from every American War since 1845. #2422

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Home of Chas. Stillman. Home of Chas. Stillman, ship owner, merchant, rancher, who came to Brazos Santiago in 1828 and in 1849-50 founded City of Brownsville in old Espiritu Santo Land Grant. Built about 1850 for his bride, Elizabeth Goodrich, of Connecticut. Has separate kitchen, cisterns, carriage house, patio typical of pre-Civil War architecture. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1964 #2530

1305 E. Washington St., Brownsville, TX, United States

Manautou House. Enrique Manautou (1885-1962) had this residence built for his family in 1925 by Brownsville architect Edward Guy Holliday (1891-1961). A native of Mexico, Manautou became one of the city's most prominent retail merchants and civic leaders. Manautou's family continued to reside in the house after his death. The Brownsville landmark features a hipped tile roof with broad eaves and is a rare Texas example of the Prairie School style of architecture. #3196

5 E. Elizabeth St., Brownsville, TX, United States

Alonso Complex. Spanish-born Manuel Alonso (1846-1922) constructed the one-story residence on this site in 1877 and added the two-story mercantile building by 1890. His "Los Dos Canones" mercantile was a popular gathering place for local residents. French and Spanish influences are evident in the cast iron porch elements (probably from New Orleans), French windows and corbelled brickwork. The complex was again used as a fine goods mercantile from 1925-1944. The Alonso family retained ownership of the complex until 1944. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1998 #11776

510 E. St. Charles, Brownsville, TX, United States

Russell-Cocke House. Built in 1877 for Judge William H. Russell (1838-1882), this house was purchased by Virginian and Confederate veteran Joseph James Cocke (1841-1926) in 1885. The Cocke family continued to live in the home until the late 1940s. The eclectic Victorian house displays Italianate and Greek Revival influences in such features as its Classical proportion and massing and its bracketed porch supports. Its most distinguishing feature is a distinctive large pedimented dormer and door with transom. The 1975 restoration of this house spurred preservation efforts in the neighborhood. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-2000 #12386

602 E. St. Charles St., Brownsville, TX, United States

Palmetto Pilings. These Palmetto piling are the remains of the Boca Chica Crossing of the Railroad from Boca Chica inlet to White's Ranch on the Rio Grande. Begun by General Francis H. Herron, U.S.A., in 1864 and completed in 1865 by General Philip H. Sheridan for the transportation of military supplies. The Cypress piling 1,000 feet north are what remain of a floating bridge constructed across Boca Chica Inlet by General Zachary Taylor in 1846 as a part of the road from Brazos Santiago to the White Ranch Landing and Clarksville on the Rio Grande, for transportation of military supplies. #3917

?, Brownsville, TX, United States

Sacred Heart Catholic Church. Sacred Heart Church was established by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate for the English-speaking parishioners of Immaculate Conception Church. San Antonio architect Frederick B. Gaenslen designed this building for the new congregation in the Gothic Revival style. Dedicated in 1913, the structure served Sacred Heart until 1967, when parish boundaries were redrawn and it became a chapel of Immaculate Conception Cathedral. With its tall bell towers and pointed-arch stained glass windows, Sacred Heart is a noteworthy part of Brownsville's architectural history. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 2001 #12624

602 E. Elizabeth St., Brownsville, TX, United States