United States / Columbus, TX

all or unphotographed
Ehrenwerth-Ramsey-Untermeyer Building. Henry M. Ehrenwerth built this two-story commercial structure in 1873-75 of bricks from a local kiln. Designed for his mercantile store, it housed L.G. Smith's Red Elk Saloon and Gambling Hall in the 1880s. In 1896 the building was purchased by James Ramsey, who operated a hardware, implement, and undertaking business here. His son Charles sold the structure in 1925 to the hardware firm of Leo L., F. J. and Emil E. J. Untermeyer. #1406

1120 Milam Street, Columbus, TX, United States

The Rangers of Austin's Colony. By March 1822, Stephen F. Austin had attracted about 150 colonists to Texas. The pioneers faced many hardships, including concern for their protection form Indians along the Colorado and Brazos rivers. In December of that year, Trespalacios, the Mexican governor, divided the colony into two districts, each having an alcalde to preside over matters of local administration and captain to handle protection of the colonists. In 1823, after several Indian attacks on members of Austin's colony, Captain Robert Kuykendall and Alcalde John Tumlinson of the Colorado District requested permission form Tresplacios to raise a company to protect the colonists. Ten men were recruited to serve under the command of Moses Morrison. When Stephen F. Austin returned from Mexico City in August 1823, he found the colony still plagued by Indian disturbances and announced that he would employ ten additional men, at his own expense, to serve as "Rangers" for the common defense. Although the law enforcement group known as the Texas Rangers was not formally organized until 1835, the "Rangers" of Austin's Colony are the earliest recorded force of this type raised in Texas and served as a model for the later formation of the Texas Rangers. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836 - 1986 #4199

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Brick Store House. Owned and occupied 1840-67 by Thomas W. Harris, a physician from Virginia. Bought by William and Mary Pinchback (1867), Kasper Vogel (1875), Bertha Wagner (1878), and still owned by Wagner heirs. Since 1912 store has housed Feherenkamp Grocery. #505

1038 Milam Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Ben Marshall Baker. (1837-1907) Influential owner-editor of "Colorado Citizens," whch he and brothers, Hicks and James, founded in 1857. All joined Confederate Army in Civil War; Hicks was killed. In ill Health, James moved away. Ben published "Citizens," 1873-1907. This was his home. Widow Virginia (Cunningham) lived here until 1916. #281

722 Jackson Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Bartels-Wirtz House. Distinctions of this Victorian cottage: gable window with star tracery, decorative bargeboard, carpenter's lace. Stained glass entrance doors are duplicated at back of the front hall. Anton Bartles, from Aldenburg, North Germany, came here in 1869; built this house about 1886; was an Alderman, 1889. Later owners have included the Will Wirtz family in 1920s and 30s; Felix Fehrenkamp; Mrs. Isabel Moeller. RTHL 1973 #312

1216 Live Oak St., Columbus, TX, United States

Beason's (Beeson's) Crossing. Benjamin Beason, one of Stephen F. Austin's original 300 colonists, settled by a widely used Colorado River crossing near here in 1822. He and his wife Elizabeth proceeded to build a large home (also used as an inn) and established a gristmill, sawmill, gin,and ferry operation at the crossing. His residence and business operations and a scattering of homesteads in the area formed a settlement known as Beason's Crossing. In the early spring of 1836 Beason found his home, family, and complex of commercial buildings in the perilous position in between Sam Houston's Army, camped on the east bank of the Colorado River opposite Beason's crossing, and a Mexican Army led by General Juaquin Ramirez Y Sesma fast approaching from the west. Houston had chosen this site to camp because of its strategic location at the edge of the most populous part of Texas. With his 1500 troops in position, Houston is said to have declared, "on the Colorado I make my stand." Notwithstanding this bold declaration, Houston unexpectedly removed his Army to the Brazos River on March 26th. Beason's crossing was subsequently burned to the ground by a detachment of Houston's Army scarcely hours before the arrival of Sesma's Army. Sam Houston Bicentennial 1793 - 1993 #347

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Benjamin Beason's Crossing of the Colorado River. Site of the camp, March 19,-26, 1836, of the Texas Army under General Sam Houston, who directed the retreat from Gonzales to the San Jacinto. #368

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Brunson Building. Charles Brunson (1830-1916), born in Westphalia, Germany, migrated to America in 1845. About 1867 he settled in Columbus, establishing a saloon, which prospered. In 1891 he erected this building, adding adjacent store in 1896. Used as saloon until about 1919, building later had other occupancies. Except for lowering of canopy and some changes in windows, it retains original Victorian style. Allen Wendel has owned this property since 1970. #545

1014 Milam Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Confederate Memorial Museum. Museum. Built 1883 by town of Columbus, using over 400,000 handmade bricks. Has 32-inch walls. Served as water tower and fire house until 1912. Since 1926 owned by Shropshire-Upton Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy. RTHL - 1966 #1028

?, Columbus, TX, United States

The Colorado County Citizen. Established 1857 by Ben, James, and Hicks Baker, the "Citizens" was named by the Rev. J. J. Scherer, minister-educator. Also published on several sites, by series of owners, as "Colorado Times" or "Colorado Citizens," this is only survivor among the several local 1800s papers. #977

513 Spring Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Columbus Female Seminary. First organized school in Columbus. Founded Feb. 3, 1851, by Caledonia Lodge No. 68, A. F. & A. M.; housed on first floor of Lodge Hall at this site. Semenary taught literary subjects, music, art, for many years. Building was destroyed in Sept. 1909 Hurricane. #981

632 Walnut Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Columbus Oak. Beneath this tree the first Court of the Third Judicial District of The Republic of Texas was held April, 1837 by Judge Robert M. Williamson ("Three Legged Willie"). #982

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Columbus State Bank. History is preserved in this structure. At founding (1919), this institution, in erecting its bank, retained a wall of 1857 Boedecker Building that had housed many ventures, including city's first bank (1875). In 1969 rebuilding, Columbus State Bank again used some parts of prior structures. #983

?, Columbus, TX, United States

William Shelby Delaney. (September 18, 1825 - December 16, 1900) Kentucky native William S. Delaney was a college professor before being admitted to the bar in 1852. He practiced law in Tennessee until 1860, when he moved to Columbus. The Delaney family homestead was located at this site. Delaney served in the county militia during the Civil War, and later was elected to the offices of District Attorney, County Judge, and representative to the State Legislature. He was active in civic affairs and was a lay leader at St. John's Episcopal Church. He died in Austin while visiting his daughter, and is buried in that city's Oakwood Cemetery. 1995 #1201

?, Columbus, TX, United States

District Court Tree. In 1837 this Oak sheltered Texas jurors. Courthouse was unfinished because logs coming down-river for building had swept past in strong current. R. M. Williamson, presiding, was called "Three-Legged Willie" due to appearance: He had good leg, crippled leg, and wooden leg. #1231

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Hancock-Heller Home. Original structure built 1865 by John S. Hancock, county tax collector. Walls are of cypress with hard cedar floors. A "dog-trot" hall divides front section. In 1884 another owner moved a second house here and placed it at the rear. He also added elaborate Victorian detailing to the front porch and gable. In 1906 family of P. F. Heller, rancher and merchant, purchased home, which is still occupied by Heller descendants. RTHL - 1970 #2354

934 Milam Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Robson's Castle and Columbus, Texas, Meat and Ice Company. Robert Robson (1804-1878), one of many Scotsmen seeking fortune in North America, came to the Texas Republic in 1839. On land he owned at this site, he built a concrete "castle," using native lime and gravel. It had running water, pumped from the Colorado into a tank on th roof, then through wooden pipes to its many rooms. It also had a roof garden and an encircling moat, with drawbridge. From Bastrop to Matagorda, it drew guests to Champagne suppers, card parties, and balls. Undermined by an 1869 flood, it became a ruin and was razed when site was put to new use in 1880s. Columbus, Texas, Meat & Ice Company built its 3-story plant on this site in 1884. It was then one of three packing houses in Texas. Established to process at place of origin, the plant could handle 125 cattle a day. Some of its beef went to Queen Victoria's London. Robert E. Stafford (1834-1890), a wealthy trail driver and rancher, veteran of Civil War service with famous Hood's Texas Brigade, owner of a private bank and extensive Colorado County properties, was president, and major stockholder in the packing house. In the early 1890s, after Stafford died, the plant closed. #4310

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Old General Store. Once a bustling, spicy smelling store, with sausage hanging from the rafters and slabs of bacon displayed in glass cases. This building was erected 1892 by H. S. Williams, merchant and city mayor. It was run 1906-1941 by P. H. Heller, Jr., and wife Annie, who lived next door. In early days, flour was kept in a huge bin; apples, onions, potatoes were stored in the cool, dark cellar; and deliveries were made in a horse-drawn "dray" (wagon). #2141

936 Milam Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Dilue Rose Harris. Dilue Rose Harris (1825-1914) is best known for her journal writings concerning events of the Texas Revolution. Her 30,000 word "Reminiscences" were published in the "quarterly" of the Texas State Historical Association, and have provided a valuable source of information about Texas at that time. Dilue Rose came to Texas in 1833, and was married to Ira Harris (1816-1869) when she was almost 14 years old in 1839. They moved to Columbus in 1845, built this house in 1858 and reared nine children while living here. Dilue and Ira Harris are buried in the Columbus City Cemetery. #2393

602 Washington Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Harrison-Hastedt House. This structure was initially a small 2-room house built in 1861. Jesse Joyner Harrison, owner of the property from 1877-1901, hired prominent local builders Andrew Wirtz & Sons in the 1880s to transform the structure into a larger 2-story frame central hall residence. The Wirtzes used fine milled wood detailing on the house's wraparound porches. The house was acquired by John and Emma Hastedt in 1911. It remained in the Hastedt family until 1989. RTHL - 1993 #2397

236 Preston Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Hebrew Benevolence Society Cemetery. Comprising one acre of land, this cemetery was begun in 1879 with the burial of M. A. Levy. Although its name suggests an affiliation with a Hebrew Benevolent Society, there was never a specific organization associated with the cemetery. Several of the city's Jewish citizens are buried here, including two infants who died in the 1880s and merchant Louis Rosenstein. The last burial was that of Pauline Lewin Nussbaum in 1938. Abandoned for many years, the cemetery was restored in 1988 by a Boy Scout troop from congregation Beth Israel in Houston. #2421

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Hunt-Cassell House. On land owned by Capt. William G. Hunt (1813-98), a Virginian who came here about 1831, fought in Texas War of Independence (1836), was a trader, fought in Civil War (1861-65), and was a vestry of St. John's Episcopal Church. He is said to have lived on this site early as 1859. Material in the structure suggest that this house has been greatly modified since that date. After several other occupancies, Mr. and Mrs. Lee Cassell bought the house in 1948. #2599

904 Travis Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Isgrig House. Late Victorian house with art glass windows, shingled gables, ornate gingerbread trim. Large rooms have 12-foot ceilings. Built in 1898 of clear lumber, hand-picked by the owners, John H. Luck, assisted by Jeff Tanner, a highly respected Negro builder working out of lumber yard of S. K. Seymour. B. F. Isgrig bought the property in 1916; descendants, including a son, Nathan Powderly Isgrig, have since occupied and preserved it. RTHL - 1973 #2657

436 Smith Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Ilse-Rau House. Built in 1887 by Henry Ilse, a farmer, rancher, saloon owner. In symmetrical Victorian style, house is constructed of cypress, with pine floors and jigsaw decorations. It contains three fireplaces with marble mantels. Roof is made of stamped metal rectangles. Contractors were Jacob and Lewis Wirtz. Ilse family home until 1954, house was purchased in 1965 and restored by Mr. and Mrs. R. F. Rau in empire and Victorian manner. Since purchased by Raymond Rau family in 1965, the structure has been known as "Raumonda." RTHL - 1970 #2660

1100 Bowie Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Keith-Traylor House. Civil War Veteran John Wilbur Keith and his wife, Haseltine Long, daughter of a prominent Beaumont businessman, moved to Columbus in 1870. They built this house about 1871 and in 1875 sold it to local merchant Charles W. Traylor and his wife, Lura (Perry), granddaughter of early Colorado River ferry opeator Benjamin Beason. The Keiths' son, James L., and the Traylors' daughter, Clara, both born in this house, were married here in 1896. Alterations include the addition of a dining room, kitchen, Queen Anne detailing, and a bathroom. The house is a fine local example of late Victorian-era, center-passage design. #2910

808 Live Oak Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Home of Texas Attorney General George McCormick. In McCormick family 100 years. "Early Texas" cottage, built 1868, with square nails; of cypress and pine wood; had five rooms, detached kitchen, dining room. Born in Virginia, McCormick (1841-1905) came to Texas 1858; served in Confederate Army; in 1871 married Myrah Thatcher; had five children. He helped write Constitution of 1876; was attorney general 1878-1880; served 1884-1892 as judge of 25th Judicial District. #3281

736 Travis Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Stein-Girndt House. Prominent local merchant Edward E. Stein and his wife, Angalla (Heller) Stein, built this house in 1897. Andrew Wirtz and sons, who built several homes in Columbus, were the contractors. Following Edward's death in 1906, his widow sold the property to her sister-in-law, Annie Stein Girndt, and her husband, H.H. Girndt. H.H. kept bees, harvesting and selling the honey at his downtown store. He is also remembered for his work in folk medicine for animals. Annie kept cows and chickens, and maintained a milk route in town. The Girndts owned the home until the 1970s. Today, it retains its original Queen Anne features, including spindlework, fishscale shingling and bargeboard detailing. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-2002 #14611

809 Milam, Columbus, TX, United States

William Menefee. William L. Menefee, born ca. 1796 in Knox County, Tennessee, served in the Tennessee Militia in the War of 1812. He studied law and was admitted to the bar sometime prior to when he moved to Alabama. In 1830 he and his wife Agnes (Sutherland) and their seven children moved to Jackson County, Texas. Menefee became involved in Texas' affairs with Mexico and represented Lavaca County as a delegate to the conventions of 1832 and 1833. In 1835 he represented Austin municipality at the consultation at San Felipe and later served as a member of the general council of the provisional government of Texas. Menefee was elected Colorado municipality's first chief justice in 1836. On March 2, 1836, he was among the signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence. In late 1836 Menefee was appointed Colorado County's first county judge by Republic of Texas President Sam Houston. Elected to the Texas House of Representatives in 1837, he was one of five congressmen chosen to select the site for the Texas Capitol. An unsuccessful candidate for the Republic of Texas vice-presidency in 1841, he later served as Fayette County's state representative from 1853 to 1857. He died on October 29, 1875, and is buried in the Texas State Cemetery in Austin. #3332

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Montgomery House. Typical post-Civil War, L-shape Empire cottage, with handmade brick foundation, native oak sills, pine floors. Siding, doors, window shutters are of cypress. House was built about 1867 by land agent A. J. Gallilee; bought in 1876 by Fannie (Obenchain) and J. T. Montgomery, whose 5 children grew up here, giving place its traditional name. Sold 1919 to Walter and Ethel Glithero, it was bought in 1967 and restored by Arthur J. Willrodt. RTHL - 1973 #3444

1419 Milam Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Youens-Hopkins House. An 1860s frontier cottage of cypress and pine, with locally made bricks in foundations. At first owned by James Hodges; bought 1875 by James H. Simpson, county's first banker; then sold in 1896 to Charles J. G. Leesemann, 1904-08 Colorado County clerk. The 1915 purchasers, Dr. Willis G. and Mrs. Fay Burford Youens, had two sons, one grandson physicians in this county; house, owned by James G. and Mary Youens Hopkins, remains in Dr. Youens' family. RTHL - 1073 #5929

617 Milam Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Home of William Christian Papenberg. (1870-1958) District clerk for 38 years in Colorado County. Born in Illinois. Educated as a teacher, came to Texas (1899) in that profession. Moved to Columbus (1904) and became clerk in 1908. This house that he and his wife Emma (Buescher) built in 1914 remains in the family. RTHL - 1973 #3935

900 Bowie Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Site of Railway Hospital. Dr. Robert Henry Harrison (1826-1905), graduate of the Botanico Medical College, Cincinnati, and Alabama Medical College, moved to Columbus in the 1870s, while the Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio (later Southern Pacific) railway was building Columbus- San Antonio line. Physician to G.H. & S.A. president T. W. Peirce, he was 1880-87 medical and surgical director, Atlantic Division of the Southern Pacific. In 1880 he built a hospital for railway employees at this site. Staff included Drs. J. H. Bowers, A. S. McDaniel, and R. H. Harrison, Jr. About 1886, hospital burned, and was not rebuilt. #4168

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Rosenfield Building. One of Columbus' first downtown commercial structures, built here in 1837, housed a doctor's family and office from 1850 to 1866. John Rosenfield bought the property in 1872 and about 1896 erected this building. A fine example of a turn of the century commercial storefront, it features first and second floor 4-bay facades, terra cotta ornamentation, front wooden sash windows with transoms, and buff brick construction. Various businesses have occupied the building. #4351

1004 Milam Street, Columbus, TX, United States

The Reverend Jacob Scherer. (February 7, 1785 - March 2, 1860) Born in North Carolina. Moved to Texas in 1851. As pastor here, is said to have founded the first English-speaking Lutheran Church in Texas; a founder (1857) of Colorado College, first public school in Columbus and one of the first in Texas; he and 3 sons made brick and built the college. #4596

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Simpson-Williamson House. Virginia Native Friench Simpson (1848-192) came to Colorado County in the 1860s. A farmer, banker, Columbus mayor, state Senator, and poet, Simpson had this home built for his family in 1882. After 1916, it became the home of Dr. C. A. Williamson (d. 1925), an early Columbus physician, and remained in that family until 1968. The home exhibits influences of the Italianate and Eastlake architectural styles in its decorative milled wood detailing and ornamental roof cresting. RTHL - 1986 #4707

630 Milam Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Tate-Senftenberg-Brandon Home. Originally a modest one-story cottage built about 1867 by Phocian Tate. Sold in 1887 to A. Senftenberg, merchant, who added second story and porches with Victorian ornamentation. In 1900 Kenneth Brandon bought home and extended northeast section. Most of early features still remain. Of interest is basement built of Columbus-made brick. In 1968 Magnolia Homes Tour bought house to restore it as a museum, with period furnishings. #5205

616 Walnut Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Site of the Camp of Gen. Joaquin Ramirez y Sesma. March 20-26, 1836, of one division of General Santa Anna's Army under the command of General Joaquin Ramirez Sesma. It crossed the Colorado at Atascosita Ford, eight miles below Columbus. #4923

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Old Stafford Opera House. Built 1886 by R. E. Stafford, 1834-1890, millionaire cattleman. Stately interior (which seated 1,000) had gas-burning chandeliers and an elaborate hand-painted curtain. Architect was N. J. Clayton, who designed many opulent Texas buildings. Opening performance, "As in a Looking Glass," starred famous Lillian Russell. Magician Houdini also played here, as did other prominent entertainers. On performance days, special trains ran from distant towns. #5087

435 Spring Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Stafford-Miller House. #5088

423 Spring Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Tait Compound. Charles William Tait (1815-1878), A physician, civil engineer, U.S. Naval officer (1838-1843), came to Texas from Alabama in 1844, surveyed extensive lands for railroads and opened 6,000-acre Sylvania Plantation. Here he grew cotton, corn, cane and produced lime. His slaves hewed logs and fired brick in plantation kiln, then built headquarters compound 1847. Originally beside the family cemetery (1 mi. S), the headquarters was relocated on higher ground at present site. Double log barn and slave cabin were moved here and restored in 1969-70 by a grandson, Robert Elbert Tait. #5191

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Charles William Tait Home. Military surgeon, surveyor, Texas Legislator, planter. After return from service with 4th Texas Calvary in Civil War, he finished home. Cottonwood siding. Hand-molded brick in chimneys. RTHL - 1965 #5192

526 Wallace Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Columbus Odd Fellows Rest Cemetery. John Toliver deeded a tract of land to Columbus Lodge No. 51, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, in July 1871 for use as a cemetery. Among the first to be interred here were victims of the 1873 yellow fever epidemic, including George W. Smith, district judge and Texas Supreme Court justice. Within a few years, a bluff on the south side began to erode, exposing some graves. In 1888 a committee was appointed to take preventative measures. The grave of Henry Middleton (d. 1888) was washed out before their efforts were successful. The Odd Fellows sold the cemetery to the newly formed Columbus Cemetery Association in 1890. The association added land in 1901. Many stones, such as those of the Dick family, were relocated from the Old City Cemetery to higher ground in the Odd Fellows Rest Cemetery after a devastating flood in 1913. Among the many burials of note in the Odd Fellows Rest Cemetery was that of J. W. E. Wallace, a Columbus founder, whose grave was moved to the State Cemetery in Austin. Robert and John Stafford, prominent Columbus businessmen, died as a result of a feud which also involved deputy sheriff Larkin S. Hope and his uncle, Sheriff J. "Light" Townsend. Hope is interred here. Wells Thompson was a Texas state senator and lieutenant governor. Others include local poets and historians, as well as veterans of the Civil War, the U. S. War with Mexico, Spanish American War, World War I, World War II, and other international wars and conflicts. More land was added to the cemetery in 1977. It continues to serve the city of Columbus at the dawn of the 21st century. The Columbus Odd Fellows Rest Cemetery is a chronicle of the history and pride of Colorado County. (2000) Incising on base: Researched by Mary Lynn skinner #12318

1500 Montezuma St., Columbus, TX, United States

Colonel Joseph Worthington Elliott Wallace. United States Consul to the colonies in Texas, 1829-1832. A native of Philadelphia, PA. He later joined Austin's Colony, serving in campaigns leading to Texas War for Independence. In 1837, with W. B. DeWees, he platted the town of Columbus. In 1840 he was in Battle of Plum Creek, repulsing Comanche Indians; in 1842, served under Gen. Edward Burleson in defense against Mexico's invasions. #5708

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Townsend-Koliba House. Front portion built in mid-1800s. Owned until 1845 by Stephen Townsend, member of prominent family and veteran of Battle of San Jacinto. In 1837, as first county sheriff, he took part in court held under famous oak (60 yds. W). In 1902 owner Edward Metzke attached second structure to first one; also added porch. Former State Representative Homer Koliba and wife Bernice (a descendant of S. Townsend) have owned house since 1951. RTHL - 1971 #5542

1124 Front Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Exum Philip Whitfield. (April 22, 1818-September 17, 1887) Columbus business leader, merchant, physician, farmer, 1858-87. President, 1861-66, Columbus Tap Railway. Served two Confederate enlistments during the Civil War, 1860s. Married (1st) M. Manerva Thompson (d. 1853); (2nd) Sara Jane Palmer. Had 12 children. #5789

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Saint John's Episcopal Church. The earliest Episcopal worship service known to have been held in Columbus occurred in 1848. At that time services were held infrequently, conducted by clergy traveling through the area. The Rev. Hannibal Pratt came to Columbus in 1855, and Saint John's Parish was officially organized and admitted to the Diocese of Texas on April 14, 1856. Worship services for Saint John's parishioners were held in a variety of locations, including the large castle-like home of Robert Robson, the County Courthouse, and the Methodist church. A lot on Milam Street was purchased in 1871 and a church building was constructed by 1874. It was later sold to the Church of Christ. Property at this site was purchased in 1906 with proceeds from the will of Mrs. Fannie Darden and money raised by the Ladies Guild. A house located here was used first as a rectory and later as a parish house. A new brick church, built with funds willed to the congregation by Mrs. Nannie Thatcher Andrus, was consecrated in 1942 by Bishop Clinton S. Quin. Charter members of Saint John's included citizens of the Republic of Texas, veterans of the Texas Revolution, local civic leaders, and state officials. #4450

915 Travis Street, Columbus, TX, United States

Colorado County. The river traversing the region was called "Colorado" (Red) by Spanish explorers who mistook it for the reddish Brazos. From the river, the county took its name; Columbus, the county seat. #973

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Alleyton, C.S.A.. Born as War clouds gathered. Alleyton was a key point on the supply line of the Confederate States of American during the Civil War. It was both beginning and end of the cotton road leading to the Confederacy's back door on the Rio Grande River. By 1860 the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railroad extended from Harrisburg, near Houston. To Alleyton. As a railhead Alleyton became the site of an important cotton station and Quartermaster Depot during the War. Cotton came here from north and east Texas. From Louisiana, and from Arkansas on the Rails of the B.B.B. & C. and via wagon roads. From Alleyton the South's most precious trading commodity was carried to a point on the Colorado River across from Columbus. A point on the Colorado River across from Columbus. It was then ferried across for the start of a long, tortuous journey to the Rio Grande. The bales of cotton were hauled on big-bedded wagons and high-wheeled Mexican carts, pulled by mules, horses or oxen. The Cotton Road led to Goliad, San Patricio, the King Ranch and finally to Brownsville. Shreds of white fluff on bush and cactus marked the trail of the wagon trains. From Brownsville the cotton was taken across the river to Matamoros, Mexico and subsequently placed on board ships bound for Europe. As the only major gap in the Federal naval blockade of the Confederacy, neutral Matamoros was the place of exchange for outgoing cotton and imported munitions, clothing and medicine. When Federal forces took Vicksburg in 1863 the Mississippi River was sealed off and the Confederacy divided. The Texas-Mexico trade routes became the South's major military supply lines in the trans-Mississippi west. Alleyton was a main destination of the wagon trains returning from the Rio Grande. Rifles, swords, shirts, pants, alum, arrowroot and other items needed by soldier and civilian in the harried Confederacy were unloaded here for new destinations. #130

?, Columbus, TX, United States

Columbus Church of Christ. Built as St. John's Church, by pioneer local Episcopal parish, organized in 1850s. After holding services in courthouse and other structures for years, the parish erected this building, which was consecrated on April 3, 1879. Columbus Church of Christ has been active since 1887, holding services in courthouse or other sites for years, purchasing this property Aug. 1943. This building has been in continuous use for worship since March 6, 1874 Recorded Texas Historic Landmark -1973 #979

815 Milam, Columbus, TX, United States

Abram Alley Log Cabin. In the 1820s, Abram Alley (d. 1862) came from Missouri to join his brothers in Stephen F. Austin's "Old 300" Colony. He settled a few miles south of here on the east side of the Colorado, and in 1835 married Nancy Millar (1817 - 1893), of another pioneer family. During the Texas War for Independence, he went to the aid of settlers fleeing Santa Anna in the "Runaway Scrape," and his own home was burned. Late in 1836 he returned and built this cabin of oak logs. Here the Alleys raised two daughters and three sons and often entertained friends and travelers. RTHL - 1977 #8827

?, Columbus, TX, United States