United States / Graham, TX

all or unphotographed
The Tonk Valley Community. Earliest known attempt at permanent settlement in this valley was made in 1851 by Elijah Skidmore, who was killed after a few months on the frontier. Locality takes its historic name from the Tonkawa nation, known in its own language as "The most human of people". In 1855 the Tonkawa were placed in this valley on reservation provided by an act of the Texas Legislature; but in 1859 the tribe was removed to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). After the Civil War ended in 1865 and especially after the Indian reserve was opened to settlers in 1873, pioneers established livestock farms here. Their children went to school in log cabin with dirt floor and homemade split log benches. Schoolmistress Addie McNabb accepted as salary a gray plow pony and a small amount of cash. In 1877 Baptists organized a church with the Rev. G. W. Black as pastor; also in 1877 Methodists founded Monk's Chapel, with Rev. B. H. Johnson as pastor. The first building strictly for church use was erected 1909. School consolidation (1922) enlarged community and (1948) saw local children transported into Graham. Community life is centered in the churches. #5438

SH 67, S of Graham, Graham, TX, United States

Warren Wagon Train Massacre. On Salt Creek Prairie (1.5 mi. W), On May 18,1871, Kiowas and Comanches from the Fort Sill Reservation, in present Oklahoma, attacked a train of 12 wagons owned by Capt. Henry Warren, contractor of supplies for U.S. forts in this frontier region. Seven teamsters were killed. The chiefs who led the raid were soon arrested, and Satank committed suicide. In a nationally spotlighted trial at Jacksboro, Satanta spoke with great eloquence on behalf of his people. Texas' Governor, E. J. Davis, later commuted the death sentences given by the court. #5721

SH 16, NE of Graham, Graham, TX, United States

Murray Methodist Church. When early pioneer Thomas Price purchased land in the old Fish Creek community in 1874, he found an abandoned log cabin which, along with his neighbors, he repaired and designated for use as a church. Early settlers, regardless of denomination preferences, worshiped together in the cabin. The Fish Creek Methodist Society was organized in 1886, and a circuit riding minister from the Throckmorton District served the little church. When the membership outgrew the cabin, services were held in a nearby school from 1893 until it burned in 1897. A new school was built, and the church met there until 1907. The Fish Creek community became known as Murray when a new post office was established with that name. In 1907, the W. L. Chandler family donated land to the church, two miles west of the original log cabin site. The church, formerly known as the Methodist Episcopal Church South of Fish Creek, was called Chandler Chapel for a short time, then renamed Murray Methodist Church. A church building was erected, featuring many interior fixtures donated by members of the congregation. The church continues to be a vital part of the community. #3540

FM 209, W of Graham, Graham, TX, United States

Markley Cemetery Decoration Day. Cemetery was begun in 1881, with interment of M. C. Norfleet, adjacent to the old Plum Grove School. By 1890, the burial ground had fallen to neglect. A group of men from the surrounding rural community, including J. C. Calvin, J. W. Cox, R. E. Currie, S. G. Dean, Nelson Owen, M. A. Stewart, Andy and Ike Tinney, J. M. Wallace, and W. M. Watson, organized an annual "Graveyard Working Day", to be held on the first Saturday in May. In the early years, people came by wagon and horseback, some camping overnight. After the cleaning work had been completed bouquets of wildflowers were replaced on the graves. About 1900, the settlement was named "Markley", in honor of A. C. Markley, an area landowner who had served in the frontier army during the Indian wars. In 1925, the observation was changed to the first Sunday in May. Although a perpetual care program has been initiated, decoration ceremonies have persisted as an annual social event, preserving a heritage of community cohesiveness and participation. Among the grave decorated each year are those of thirteen Confederate veterans of the Civil War: John F. Bussey, J. C. Butler, Jessie Byrd, R. E. Currie, George J. Lucas, J. D. Mankins, J. L. McDaniel, J. L. Norfleet, Nelson Owen, J.C. Stanley, James Stinnett, Cates Thompson, and David White. #3220

SH 16, 20 Mile N of Graham, Graham, TX, United States

Addie M. Graham. Born in Indiana in 1843, Agnes Mary ("Addie") Kinter married Edwin Smith Graham in 1865. Upon hearing of the opportunities for land development in Texas, Graham traveled to Texas many times during the 1870s. In 1872, he and his brother, G. A., founded this town. They gave land for a county courthouse and set aside lots for churches, schools, and cemeteries. In 1879, E. S. and Addie Graham brought their children to live in the new town. Twelve years later, they moved to Spokane, Washington, where Col. Graham had other business ventures. He died there in 1899. Addie Graham returned to Graham and continued her husband's philanthropic efforts. She contributed to the building of a city auditorium, endowed a Bible teaching position in the Graham schools, and donated land on which was built a home for the aged poor of the county. In 1907, the city's first water pumping station was built to replace the individual wells and cisterns that had been used since the town's founding. The water remained untreated, however, until 1910, when Addie Graham gave the money for a filtering plant. The facility, built at this site, was in use for 75 years. Addie Graham died in 1929. Her contributions have had a lasting impact on the town's growth and development. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986 #85

Fireman's Park, FM 61, Graham, TX, United States

A. B. Medlan Home. Built of brick made on this farm, settled 1855 by A.B. Medlan, Texas Ranger, Church leader and builder, treasurer and commissioner of Young County. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1964. #48

SH 67 & County Road, SW of Graham, Graham, TX, United States

An 1890 Bank Building. Irish quarrymen mined stone for this Victorian structure on Bower's Hill (2 mi. N), near home of bank director, L. J. Bower. With its fine quality masonry and woodwork, the bank building added dignity to the Courthouse Square. An abstract firm and land office occupied the upper floor. After drought in its north Texas and Indian Territory trade areas, the bank failed in 1895. In 1906 W. I. Tidwell and son bought the property for a retail store. It was sold to W. A. Corbett in 1933 and to Mr. and Mrs. Rupert Roach in 1975. The lower front facade was last changed in the 1950s. (1976) #156

500 Oak St., Graham, TX, United States

Brazos Indian Reservation School. Operated for Indian children living on Brazos Reservation, a 37,000-acre refuge created by state in 1854. Here over 1,000 Anadarko, Caddo, Delaware, Ioni, Shawnee, Tawakoni, and Tonkawa people lived, farming and acting as U.S. Army Scouts. Despite racial strife outside reserve, teacher Z. E. Coombes (1833-95) reported unusual good will and harmony in classroom. Subjects taught were English, spelling, writing, and arithmetic. From 34 to 60 students were enrolled. School closed when Indians were moved north in 1859. #493

FM 2179, North of Graham, Graham, TX, United States

Cattle Raisers Association Oak. In commemoration of the organization under this oak by 40 men of the Cattle Raisers Association of Texas on February 15-16, 1877. Its first officers were: C. L. Carter, President; J. D. Smith, vice president; J. C. Loving, secretary: S. J. Connor, assistant secretary. Its membership in 1936 is 2,500. #765

408 4th St., Graham, TX, United States

Early Church of Graham. Erected in 1885 for use by the First Baptist Church (established 1880). Dedicated May 10 at service preached by Elder W. M. Farmer. Originally structure had a bell tower and its red brick was not painted. Land was donated by Col. E. S. Graham, founder of town. J. H. Wood served as contractor. In 1908, when Baptists erected a new building, this one was sold to Church of Christ, which has now worshipped at same site longer than any other church in town. (Recorded Texas Historic Landmark 1971) #1339

701 Grove St., Graham, TX, United States

Episcopal Parish Church. N/A - Medallion only #1493

Possum Kingdom Lake, Graham, TX, United States

First National Bank in Graham. South Carolina native W. C. Beckham (1825-1895) came to Graham from Florida in the 1880s. He opened a mercantile store on the north side of the town square and soon began making short-term loans to his customers. That practice led to the creation of the Beckham National Bank in 1890. In 1921 it was renamed First National Bank in Graham. A significant part of the city's economic history, the bank continued in operation of the north side of the square until 1972, when it moved to this location. #1788

200 Elm St., Graham, TX, United States

Graham Church of Christ. In 1908, Settler J. I. Wilbourn, aided by church in Fluvanna, arranged for earliest Church of Christ services in Graham. Organized September 21, 1908, with Elders J. F. Maxey and Wilbourn, Graham Church is now ministering to fourth generation of membership. 1969 #2239

?, Graham, TX, United States

Lewis Pinkney Brooks Home. Home of Lewis Pinkney Brooks, Civil War veteran. He rode mule, Georgia, to Texas, 1866. Stone for 1875 home quarried on place. (Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1965.) #3078

Pinkney Brooks Road, Graham, TX, United States

Ryus Store Building. Druggist Joseph E. Ryus (1848-1909) built this structure of locally made bricks in 1879 after his frame store on this lot burned. The large room above Ryus's Drugstore served as Judge Andrew P. McCormick's first courtroom in 1879 when Graham was named site of a Federal District Court, which later moved to Abilene. Since purchasing the building in 1892, Knights of Pythias Corinthian Lodge No. 143 has used the upper floor as a meeting hall. (Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1974) #4398

608 Oak St., Graham, TX, United States

Standpipe Mountain. Rising 1160 feet above sea level as part of the Belknap Range, Standpipe Mountain is the western peak of the twin mountains, which dominate the surrounding landscape. It was included in the land purchased in 1872 by E. S. and G. A. Graham, for whom the town was named. The brothers moved to this area from Kentucky to begin development of land and mineral resources in the area. The town of Graham developed rapidly and was soon the site of a gristmill, sawmill, brick factory, Federal court, and the county courthouse. During the early 1890s the mountain was explored by E. S. Graham to determine if silver or other minerals might exist in commercial quantities. It became known as Standpipe Mountain in 1907 when a city water storage tank was first constructed on the crest. Designated Victory Park, the mountain was donated to the city by the estate of E. S. Graham following World War I. Later developed by the Rotary Club, it has played a significant role in the community. Since the 1870s Standpipe Mountain has served as a landmark, a center of commercial activity, and as a favorite spot for numerous candlelight ceremonies, picnics, and outings. #5095

700 Block of 4th St., Graham, TX, United States

Site of Graham School. Second school in the county. Established in 1904 as Graham Chapel School; named for local settler Newt Graham. A school was built on land given by Joe McMahon. Early trustees: McMahon, J. F. Maxey, and J. I. Wilburn. Second building was erected 1915. Upon consolidation with Gossett School in 1930, a brick building was constructed here and named Graham School. It had first gymnasium in the county. It consolidated 1957 with Post School. The building was used as a community center 1959-1963, and was then razed; the present building was erected in 1964. 1969 #4805

?, Graham, TX, United States

The Young County Jail. (1878-1921) This jail was built with two stories in 1878. The jailer lived downstairs, and above were two cells--one with a steel cage for maximum security. There were many dramatic jailbreaks, with lives lost on both sides of the law. In 1881, killer Jack Post, the only man legally hanged in this county, rode from the jail astride his coffin. The five Marlow brothers broke out in 1888, causing a major shootout and manhunt. The property was phased out as a jail in 1921, and saw many changes in use and appearance before being bought by Kelley B. King in 1975. #5457

612 4th St., Graham, TX, United States

Brazos River Indian Reservation. In February 1854 the Texas Legislature designated 12 Spanish leagues (or 53,136 acres) of land to be maintained as Indian Reservations by the Federal government. In August 1854, Major Robert S. Neighbors, United States supervising Indian agent, and Captain Randolph B. Marcy, of the United States Army, made surveys in both Spanish and American measurements; American dimensions were platted, totaling 69,120 acres. In the 8-league tract here in Young County--on either side of the Brazos River --were placed tribes of Anadarko, Caddo, Tehuacana, Tonkawa, Waco and others, together with splinter groups of the Cherokees, Choctaws, Delawares, Shawnees and some other remnants. The southern Comanches had their 4-league reservation about 45 miles to the west. Under the guidance of United States agents, the Indians of the Brazos River Reservation made much progress in agriculture, stock raising and other arts of civilization. Drouth and other adversities, however, led to closing of the reservations. Emptied in 1859 when the Indians were removed to vicinity of present Anadarko, Oklahoma, lands of the reservation reverted to the state, and were opened to the pre-emption of Texas citizens in 1873. #494

Shawnee Park, SH 16, Graham, TX, United States

Graham Chapel Methodist Church. Organized 1915. Pastor, the Rev. T. C. Willett, rode bicycle from Tahoka to preach here. Church met for two years in Graham School building, then in Gossett School building, which it bought in 1930. Moved here, structure has been enlarged. 1969 #2238

?, Graham, TX, United States

Medlan Chapel Primitive Baptist Church. Built 1882 of native sandstone quarried one mile from site with lime rock burned for mortar. Pews hauled by ox wagon from Sherman. One of earliest houses of worship in Young County. Church and land donated by A. B. (Uncle Archie) and Aunt Betty Medlan, 1888. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1965. #3317

Cantry Road, SW of Graham, Graham, TX, United States

Morrison Funeral Home. Mississippi native John Edward Morrison (1848-1926) and his family moved to Texas in 1874, settling first in Tarrant County. They arrived in Young County in 1876, and Morrison purchased several tracts of land. By January 1877 he had opened a blacksmith shop on the Town Square, and in 1884 he formed a partnership with Spencer Boyd Street. Their new venture was called Morrison & Street Family Grocery. Over the years, J. E. Morrison expanded his business interests to include dry goods, hardware, and lumber. Eventually he opened branch stores in nearby towns. In 1888, with the addition of undertaking supplies to the company's inventory, the Morrison Funeral Home was begun. The partnership with Street was dissolved in 1895, and several of Morrison's children joined the family businesses. Following Morrison's death his son, Adger A., became head of the undertaking business. He expanded the company, and a new building was completed in 1938. The businesses of John E. Morrison have played an important part in Graham's history. Now in its second century, the Morrison Funeral Home continues to be operated by descendants of John Edward Morrison. #3476

700 Oak St., Graham, TX, United States

Graham Post Office. Built in 1935-1936 at a cost of $60,000, this was the seventh and first long-term post office in Graham. It was one of a number of Depression-era federally funded projects built in the city. An excellent example of a Moderne style post office of the 1930s, the structure contains an intact mural by regional painter Alexandre Hogue. The edifice was designed by U.S. Treasury architect Louis A. Simon. Its distinctive features include decorative aluminum grillwork, sculptural metal lights and Zig-Zag Art Moderne stone friezes. The U.S. Postal operations were relocated to another site in 1992. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1999 #13743

510 Third St., Graham, TX, United States

Britt Johnson. (1823-1871) Cowboy, Indian scout, orderly at Fort Belknap in 1850s, who lost a son (Jim) as one of 12 persons killed in Elm Creek Indian raid, Oct. 12, 1864. His wife Mary and children, Jube and Cherry, were among 6 persons captured. Johnson traced his family and by stealth took them from Indian Territory. But the Indians took vengeance. On Jan. 24, 1871, Johnson's camp near here was attacked by Kiowas. Over 100 empty rifle shells at the site showed how valiantly he and companions Dennis Cureton and Paint Crawford fought before being killed and scalped. They were buried by U.S. cavalrymen. (1972) #21

FM 1769, 6 mi. NW of Graham, Graham, TX, United States

Gooseneck Cemetery. Named for a bend in the Brazos River, this cemetery first served pioneers of the Gooseneck community. Land for the burial ground was donated by Kentucky native George Washington Fore (1823-1903) and his son, John Silas Fore (1851-1931), who became a cattleman and sheriff in Wichita County. The property was earlier part of the Brazos River Indian Preserve. The Fore's also conveyed land for a community school and church. The school remained in operation until 1947, when it merged with the Graham District. The church, originally known as Macedonia Missionary Baptist Church, later became Bunger Baptist Church. Burials in Gooseneck Cemetery date from shortly after the Civil War. The earliest marked graves are those of F. M. McLaren and Anna Davidson who died in 1876. Others interred here include the site's donor, George Washington Fore, and James James (1764-1878). A native of Virginia and a veteran of the War of 1812, James was 114 years old at the time of his death. Today Gooseneck Cemetery is an important reminder of a pioneer community. Many descendants of its early settlers continue to maintain the site as a tribute to the area's rich heritage. #2228

FM 1287, S of Graham, Graham, TX, United States

Site of Third County Courthouse. Young County was organized in 1856 with Belknap designated as county seat. After retreat of frontier troops during Civil War, county records were moved to Jacksboro 1865 during renewed Indian trouble. County was reorganized 1874 with Graham, county seat. Courthouse (of which only archway remains) was built 1884. Native sandstone for the two-story structure was quarried east of Graham by Irish workers. N. J. Rosenquist, a native of Sweden and builder of Texas courthouses, was chief stonemason. Building had two halls in form of Greek cross--a plan that followed points of the compass. (Archway belonged to east hall.) Officials at the time of construction were: County Judge, R. F.Arnold; Treasurer, J. W. Wadley; County Clerk, C. O. Joline; Tax Assessor, J. G. Hill; County Attorney, J. A. Woolfolk; Sheriff, W. T. Bunger; County Commissioners, W. C. Blakey, J. J. Hughes, J. . Mercer and H. D. Williams. Courthouse was razed in 1932 after completion of present structure. A. A. Morrison, fire marshal, led efforts to preserve historic archway during street improvements in 1936. During its existence, this Courthouse witnessed and preserved the records of many historic events of Young County. #4899

SH 16, Graham, TX, United States

Graham Salt Works. Saline residue found along the banks of Salt Creek attracted settlers to this area in the 1850s. The first person to undertake commercial production of salt here was Martin V. Bowers, who arrived in the area prior to the Civil War. A farmer and local politician, he later sold his business to A. B. Gant and moved to Parker County. Gant, a Confederate veteran, operated the salt works until 1871, when he was elected to the Texas Legislature. He sold the operation to Gustavus A. (1836-1906) and Edwin S. (1831-1899) Graham, brothers who had come to Texas with the Texas Emigration and Land Company. The Grahams improved the salt works by adding new equipment in 1872. With a capacity of producing 2,500 pounds of salt per day, the Graham salt works was in operation for only two years. The salt, sold to merchants in nearby towns, cost more to transport than to produce, and the operation was discontinued. Although short in duration, the Graham Salt Works played a vital role in local development. The Graham brothers donated land for a town, named for their family, as well as for Oak Grove Cemetery, where both brothers were later buried. (1987) #2240

500 Block of SH 67, Graham, TX, United States