United States / Killeen, TX

all or unphotographed
First Cavalry Division. First in Manila--first in Tokyo--first in Pyongyang. The Fifth Cavalry regiment, raised and posted in 1855 to Fort Belknap, Texas, is the oldest unit in the 1st Cavalry Division, United States Army. Next (1866) were the Seventh and Eighth regiments. The Eighth initially saw duty at Fort Concho, Texas. On Sept. 13, 1921, the Division was constituted of these and one other regiment (later dropped) at Fort Bliss, Texas, to defend the United States-Mexico Border. In 1933, the twelfth regiment, formed in 1901 at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas, came into the Division. Dismounted in 1943 and sent to the Pacific, the Division captured the Admiralty Islands, joined the Invasion of Leyte, and captured Manila on order of General Douglas MacArthur to act as his "First Team". During United Nations action in Korea, the division swept over 100 miles in 11 hours to reach Osan and win victory. It was the first force to enter the North Korean capital, Pyongyang. On July 1, 1965, at Fort Benning, Ga., It was converted to an Airmobile Division--the first in U.S. military history. It had a distinguished record in Vietnam. Since 1971 it has been based at Fort Hood, in the state of its creation and earliest service. (1976) #1695

?, Killeen, TX, United States

First Baptist Church of Killeen. This fellowship was established in 1873 as the Baptist Church of Christ at Palo Alto. In 1883, one year after Killeen was founded on the rail line, the congregation moved three miles southwest to the new town. The Rev. Thomas H. Bacon served as first pastor of the Missionary Baptist Church of Killeen, as it was renamed. The large influx of people who came to the area during the building of Ft. Hood in 1942 resulted in a great increase in membership. Through its active mission work, First Baptist Church of Killeen has led in the formation of several area congregations. (1983) #1645

809 N. 4th St., Killeen, TX, United States

First National Bank of Killeen. Chartered on Feb. 27, 1901, the First National Bank of Killeen is the oldest continuously operated bank in Bell County. It first served a primarily agricultural economy, but as Killeen began to develop the bank led in the town's dramatic growth. Its merger with Jewelers Bank, a private financial Institution, in 1904 and its 1934 consolidation with the First State Bank of Killeen were instrumental in the bank's early progress. Later growth was a result of the institution's innovations and its commitment to the community. (1982) #1798

?, Killeen, TX, United States

Live Oak Cemetery. Although an inventory of marked gravesites indicates that the first person buried here was Michael Young, local tradition claims that distinction actually belongs to Young's daughter. She is believed to have died of sickness near this location during the family's westward journey from Alabama and buried here prior to her father's interment in 1875. At that time, this particular piece of land was still state public land. It was not until 1886 that it passed into the private ownership of John O. Rhea. The first legal documentation of Live Oak Cemetery is contained in a deed transfering 3.9 acres of land for cemetery purposes from a subsequent owner, P.C. Mitchell, to cemetery trustees in 1901. At that time the cemetery contained about 40 burials. The dates appearing on tombstones suggest that this cemetery has been in continuous use since 1875. By 1990 it contained about 435 marked and unmarked graves. This cemetery is closely associated with the community of Youngsport, reportedly named for Michael Young. Live Oak Cemetery, together with the Boone-Hamlin Cemetery, continues to actively serve the Youngsport community and is maintained by a local cemetery association. (1992) #3103

?, Killeen, TX, United States

Maxdale Bridge. In July 1913, the Bell County Commissioners Court, in response to repeated flooding in this area, approved construction of a bridge at this site to provide access to Killeen for residents of the Maxdale Community. Before it was completed, however, the bridge was destroyed in a flood. The Bell County Commissioners Court contracted again with Hess & Skinner Engineers, agents for the Missouri Valley Bridge Company, to build this bridge. Completed in 1914, the Maxdale Bridge employs a Parker truss design, which allows for maximum strength at mid-span. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1990 #3263

?, Killeen, TX, United States

Wednesday Review Club. Organized by twelve charter members in September 1906, this organization was originally known as the Ladies Literary Society of Killeen. The name was changed one month later to the Wednesday Review Club. Pursuing studies in American and international history and literature, club members have met on a regular basis for generations. The club has also provided civic leadership in Killeen with such projects as establishing one of the first lending libraries in town and donating books and other materials to local public schools. (1988) #5740

1212 Florence Rd., Killeen, TX, United States

Second Armored Division, U. S. Army. Gen. Patton's "Hell on Wheels," the 2nd Armored Division, United States Army Formed to meet 20th century challenges, this force includes Battery A, 1st Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery, which has been in service since 1778. That battery and other veteran units have found new capabilities in this age of mechanized combat involving lightning mobility and massive firepower. In 1940, as German panzers overran France, the United States Congress created the 1st and 2nd American Armored Divisions. The 2nd was organized July 15, 1940, at Fort Benning, Ga., by Gen. Charles L. Scott, and received its "Hell on Wheels" name in 1941 from Gen. George S. Patton, Jr. First U.S. armored force in combat in World War II, "Hell on Wheels" landed in North Africa on Nov. 8, 1942. It won great victories at Safi and Casablanca, in the assault on Sicily, the 1944 Normandy invasion, the Battle of the Bulge, and other campaigns. Along 11,702 miles of combat advance, the 2nd won 7 French Croix de Guerres, 19 Distinguished Unit citations, and was first foreign division ever given the Fourragere of Belgium. The 2nd provided Honor Guard for President Harry S. Truman at the Potsdam peace conference. Since 1945 Fort Hood has been 2nd's permanent base. (1975) #37

?, Killeen, TX, United States

Bethel Primitive Baptist Church. Bethel Primitive Baptist Church originated in the Palo Alto Community, which was located about 3.5 miles northeast of present Killeen. Organized about 1864, the congregation met in a Union Church building shared with other denominations. When the Gulf, Colorado, and Santa Fe Railroad was built through Bell County in 1882, the town of Killeen grew up along the rail line. The Palo Alto post office was discontinued, and the community declined after most of the residents moved to Killeen. By 1889 Bethel Primitive Baptists Church had relocated to this site. Exhibiting design elements characteristic of the late 19th century, this structure is believed to be the oldest church building in Killeen. Its features include a steep gable roof, double-door entry with Gothic-inspired window details, and simple windows with protruding lintels. A part of Bell County history for well over a century, Bethel Primitive Baptist Church continues to serve a small congregation. It stands as a reminder of early settlement and rural vernacular architecture. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1990 #391

400 S. Gray, Killeen, TX, United States

Santa Fe Depot. Founded in 1882 as a shipping point on the Gulf, Colorado, and Santa Fe Railroad, Killeen was named for railroad official Frank P. Killeen. After the first depot was destroyed by fire, Santa Fe workers used standard plans to build this structure in 1913. The presence of the rail line was instrumental in the U.S. Army's decision to build camp Hood (later Fort Hood) during World War II. After the railroad took the depot out of active service, the city acquired it in 1982 and moved it to this site 350 feet west and 130 feet north of its original location. (1990) #4578

1 Santa Fe Plaza, Killeen, TX, United States

Killeen Herald. W.E. Bennett began publishing the Killeen Herald in June 1890, eight years after the town of Killeen was founded. Later owners of the newspaper included W.T. Carter, an active civic leader who served as publisher and editor from 1907 to 1950. Begun as a weekly publication, the Herald has been a daily paper since 1953. From the earliest days of Killeen, the Herald has grown with the town and has chronicled the area's dynamic progress. It is now the oldest privately owned and continuously operated business enterprise in the city of Killeen. (1990) #2939

1809 Florence Rd., Killeen, TX, United States

Lt. Gen. Andrew Davis Bruce. Lt. Gen. Andrew Davis Bruce (September 14, 1894-July 27, 1969) Originator of tank destroyer corps; "Father of Fort Hood." Brilliant battlefield leader and educator. Born in St. Louis, Mo.; graduated 1916 from Texas A. and M.; in 1917, began 37 years of active military duty. In France with 2nd Infantry Division, World War I, attained (at 24) temporary rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Served in German occupation, 1919. In 1920s-30s, taught and wrote texts in military science and tactics; and served with 33rd Infantry Division, Panama Canal Zone. When assigned to start tank destroyer center, he situated it at Killeen, Feb. 1942, because of terrain and climate, naming the camp (now a fort) for Gen. John Bell Hood (1831-79), "Whose enemies never saw his back." Made a Major General, Sept. 9, 1942, Bruce commanded 77th Infantry Division in World War II battles of Guam, Leyte, Kerama Rotto, Ie Shima, and Okinawa. As in World War I, he won many decorations, including two awards of the Distinguished Service Cross. He was Governor of Hokkaido, Japan, 1945-46; Deputy Commander, 4th Army, 1947-51; commandant of Armed Forces Staff College from 1951 until his retirement in 1954. (1972) In distinguished civilian career, served University of Houston as president, 1954-56; chancellor, 1956-61. He and wife Roberta (Kennedy) had three children. #3143

?, Killeen, TX, United States

Mayberry Park Cemetery. The only remaining legible headstone in this graveyard reveals that the cemetery dates to the late 19th century. The grave of James Moses Cowan (1834-1888) is believed to be one of 12-20 burials. Other graves are marked with plain stones or remain unadorned. According to local tradition, members of the pioneer O.M. Hood family were interred in the cemetery. There was no specific name associated with the cemetery until the mid-20th century, when it became known as Mayberry Park Cemetery. The land became a part of Fort Hood in 1942. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986 #3267

?, Killeen, TX, United States

Brown (Okay Community) Cemetery. Elisha Ivy, for whom Ivy Mountain Road was named, established a home and store in this vicinity in the 1860s. In the 1870s, a community known as Liberty Hill developed northwest of his property. In 1896, when the rural settlement applied for a post office, its name was changed to Okay. Area residents supported churches, a school and businesses, and Samuel Marion and Mary Elizabeth (Evans) Brown set aside land for a community burial ground, formally deeding it in 1907. As military installations in the area grew, the community of Okay was displaced and ceased to exist in the early 1940s. In 1953, the U.S. Government decided to extend the runway at Gray Air Force Base, where the Brown (Okay Community) Cemetery was located, approximately 1,600 feet southwest of this site. The Army Corps of Engineers moved 70 graves, 30 of which were for unidentified individuals, to this location and aligned the burials similarly to original positions. The earliest marked grave dates to 1882 and is that of infant David Davis. Today, the cemetery is a reminder of the Okay community and the families who lived there. Historic Texas Cemetery - 2004 #13433

?, Killeen, TX, United States

Avenue D School. Constructed to replace an earlier brick schoolhouse destroyed by fire, the present Avenue D School was built in 1923. C.J. Leinbach of Dallas designed the three-story building, which features decorative stonework and separate entrances for girls and boys. Funds from the sale of advertising space on the auditorium curtains were used for interior furnishings. All grade levels were housed here until the 1940s when the Junior High School and High School were relocated. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1981. #251

215 N. College, Killeen, TX, United States

City of Killeen. When the tracks of the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Railroad were extended from Temple to Lampasas in the early 1880s, a switching station was installed near the midway point. The settlement that grew up around the site became the town of Killeen, named for Frank P. Killeen, a native of Ireland and a senior official of the rail company. The first train arrived on May 15, 1882, marking the beginning of the town. Many early residents of Killeen came from the nearby pioneer communities of Sugar Loaf (6 mi. N) and Palo Alto (3.5 mi.NE). Town lots were sold by the GC&SF Railroad and one of the earliest structures built was a wooden community school which opened in the fall of 1882. By the following year Killeen was the site of two gristmills and a cotton gin. The town was incorporated in 1893 and W.E. Hudson was elected to serve as the first mayor. In the early years of Killeen's development, the town was primarily an agricultural center for the production of cotton, grain, wool and cattle. In 1942 it became the home of Camp Hood, now Fort Hood. The federal installation's growth as a major military base has had a dramatic impact on the city, making it one of the fastest growing towns in Texas. (1982) #887

?, Killeen, TX, United States

Hiram B. Reynolds Property. Born in Tennessee, Hiram B. Reynolds (1858-1929) came to Texas with his parents in 1866 and lived near Sparta, a locality now absorbed into Fort Hood. He grew up on a farm and received a good education. Going into business, he had stores in Nolanville and Belton, and became a successful cotton broker and investor in farms. He married in 1904 Mrs. Hettie Mize Hall, a widow with three children; the couple had two sons. In 1915, the family moved to Killeen and built this house on one of their farms which was then producing corn, cotton, livestock, and small grains. For the time and place, this was considered an unusually fine structure. It had five bedrooms, a storage room, halls, porches, a parlor, kitchen, dining room, butler's pantry, carbide lights, and a bathroom with fixtures only for bathing. This was home to members of the Reynolds family until 1942. Of the several hundred farm and ranch houses that were acquired by the United States Government when Fort Hood was established, this house alone survives. As a symbol of the vanished communities of the area, it links the past and present. Remodeled in 1954, it has been the residence of numerous general officers stationed at Fort Hood. (1976) #2491

?, Killeen, TX, United States

Immanuel Lutheran Church Cemetery. The first burial in this graveyard, that of Wilhelm Wolf, took place in 1891, two years after the German Evangelical Lutheran Emmanuel Congregation was formally organized. The Rev. H.F. Daude (1850-1924), who served as first pastor, deeded land here in 1893 for the church, school, and cemetery. Members of the congregation, now known as Immanuel Lutheran, continue to use the graveyard, although the church relocated to another site in the early 1940s. The German language appears on many of the tombstones reflecting a part of the area's German heritage. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986 #2622

2300 Old FM 440, Killeen, TX, United States

John Blackburn Log House. John Churchill Gaines Blackburn (1832-1912) was born in Tennessee and came to Texas in 1853. He and his wife Mary Ann Chambers Blackburn (1831-1908) first stopped with other family members in Williamson County, then moved to Bell County in 1854. Blackburn's father, John Porter Blackburn (1786-1855), had previously established claims in Texas, including land in this county near the Palo Alto Community (then about 4 mi.ne). There John C.G. Blackburn established a 30-acre farm. He enlisted in the Confederate State Militia in 1861 when the Civil War began. Blackburn built this oak-log structure in 1863, according to family tradition, just before enlisting in the Confederate Cavalry. He was then assigned to frontier duty along the Rio Grande for the duration of the war. The Blackburns built a larger house at Palo Alto in 1883. This structure survived at its original site until 1954, when a Fort Hood expansion prompted its removal to Westcliff Road in Killeen (2 mi.NE). It remained there until 1976, when the cabin was moved here and rebuilt as an artifact of frontier life in Bell County. John C.G. and Mary Ann Blackburn are buried at the Blackburn Cemetery near their homestead on Old Schwald Road (about 4 mi. NE on Fort Hood property). Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986 #2768

2201 E. US 190 Business, Killeen, TX, United States

Youngsport. In January 1846, Francis L. Mudd received one-third of a league of land in this area along the Lampasas River. Four years later, the property became part of the newly created Bell County, carved out of Milam County. The next year, Michael Young purchased a parcel of Mudd's land and settled here with his family, reportedly because they had stopped while traveling to care for a sick daughter who did not survive. They buried her in what would become known as Live Oak Cemetery. A ship captain before moving to this area, Young allegedly named the community Young's Port, because he had finally found his port. Other early landowners and settlers included Anderson Young and P.C. Mitchell. In 1871, eleven years before the city of Killeen was established, Youngsport's post office opened. At the turn of the 20th century, the settlement supported several businesses, including a general store, barbership, drugstore, physician's office and blacksmith. The Live Oak Baptist and Church of Christ congregations served area residents, and local children attended a schoolhouse that was moved to the community around 1886. For many years, Youngsport residents received products and services from Killeen. By 1930, when the post office closed, three men and one woman served the community as postmaster. Eight years later, the school, which accommodated grades one through eight, closed, and students transferred into the Killeen district. By 2005, three cemeteries and the Church of Christ served as links to the early years of the dispersed agricultural settlement. (2006) #13450

?, Killeen, TX, United States