United States / San Antonio, TX

all or unphotographed
Site of the Home of Dr. Ferdinand Ludwig Herff. Ferdinand Ludwig Von Herff (1820-1912) was the son of Christian and Eleanora (Von Meusebach) Herff, prominent citizens of Darmstadt, Germany. The younger Von Herff studied in Giessen, Bonn and Berlin, graduating with a medical degree in 1843. He served as a surgeon in the Hessian army, achieving recognition in plastic surgery, cataract extraction and tuberculosis treatment. In 1847 he joined a group known as Die Vierziger (The Forty), who founded an idealistic commune in Texas called Bettina (near present Castell). The utopian enterprise failed within a year, and Von Herff returned to Germany, where he was pressed into military service during the German Revolution. He married Mathilde Klingerhöeffer (1823-1910) in 1849, and they were on the way back to Texas by year's end. The couple dropped the title "Von" from their name when they became American citizens. They lived briefly in New Braunfels, then settled in San Antonio in 1850. Active in city, cultural and medical affairs, Herff was a city alderman from 1850 to 1851. He helped form the Bexar County Medical Society and was a charter member of the Texas Medical Association in 1853. In 1855 he built a home on this site. Herff served as city health officer in 1860. Although he was a Confederate Army surgeon during the Civil War, his Union sympathies were known. In 1869, he was instrumental in founding San Antonio's first infirmary, operated by the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word. Herff served on the Texas State Board of Medical Examiners in 1880 and continued his general medical practice until 1908, performing his last surgery at age 87. He died in his home on the river in 1912.

414 Navarro, San Antonio, TX, United States

J.M. and Birdie Nix House. Alabama natives Joseph Madison and Birdie Lanier Nix moved to San Antonio in the early 1890s. J.M. was a businessman who built hotels and other structures. In 1899, the couple built twin houses at 434 and 432 King William. The Free Classic design of this house, the work of Atlee B. Ayres, features a dominant front gabled roof, Palladian attic vent, paired box columns and New England style shingle patterning. The Nixes sold the property in 1912 and later built landmarks throughout San Antonio and South Texas, including the local Nix Professional Building and the Medical Arts Building. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 2006 #13658

434 King William, San Antonio, TX, United States

Route of El Camino Real. The main thoroughfare of early Texas, The Camino Real, or "King's Highway", followed ancient Indian and buffalo trail. It stretched 1,000 miles from Mexico to present Louisiana. Domingo Teran de los Rios, first Governor of Texas, blessed the central section of the road in 1691. Called the "Trail of the Padres", it linked Monclova, Mexico, with the Spanish Missions of East Texas. Over the centuries, priests, soldiers, traders, and settlers used the Camino Real. The French adventurer T. Denis probably traveled the road from Lousiana to the Rio Grande in 1714. San Antonio was a major stop on this frontier highway. Moses Austin followed the Camino Real to San Antonio in 1820 seeking colonization rights from Spain. Many Anglo-American settlers called it the "old San Antonio Road". It joined this city with Nacogdoches, San Augistine, and other East Texas Settlements. In 1915 the Texas Legislature appropriated $5,000 to mark the historic roadway across the state. The Daughters of the American Revolution, along with other patriotic groups, endorsed the project. V.N. Zivley surveyed the route and indicated the spacing for granite markers every five miles. Today many modern highways follow the path of the Camino Real. #1409

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

El Carmen Cemetery (Cementerio del Carmen). Numerous 19th-century journals and other written historical accounts trace the origin of this cemetery to the burial of casualities of the Battle of Medina. Fought on August 18, 1813, the battle was the result of a failed attempt by a Republican Army of the North, consisting of about 1200 to 1500 Mexicans, Anglo-Americans, and Indians, to free Mexico from Royalist Spanish Rule. The Royalist army was victorious, and hundreds of men who died on the battlefield later were interred at this site between 1813 and 1817. The church of Nuestra Senora del Carmen traces its origin to a chapel built over the soldiers' burial crypt. The burial site became a community cemetery as pioneer settlers established homes in this area. Among those interred in the graveyard are the families of Domingo Losoya and Dionicio Martinez, who received Mexican land grants surrounding the cemetery property. Also buried here are Enrique Esparza, who as a child survived the Battle of the Alamo, and French immigrant Gustave Toudouze, a prominent local naturalist and businessman. A cemetery association formed in 1927 maintains the historic site, which continues in use as a cemetery for the local community. #1413

18555 Leal Rd., San Antonio, TX, United States

Boldtville Schoolhouse. Land for this schoolhouse was given to Bexar County in 1919 by Albert F. Boldt. During that year this two-room building was constructed by local resident Fritz Gembler. From 1919 until 1960 it served as an educational facility for the children of nearby rural families. An example of a typical early 20th-century, two-room Texas schoolhouse, the structure features a pedimented porch with a cupola. (1984) #447

6634 New Sulpher Springs Rd., San Antonio, TX, United States

Oscar and Rachel Berman House. Jewish-Russian immigrant Oscar Berman was in Texas by the 1880s. He wed Rachel "Ray" Finklestein c. 1890 and became a businessman in Luling, Caldwell County, parterning with Getzel Zadek. They later opened a wholesale liquor business in San Antonio. With Prohibition in 1918, they branched into other businesses, including loans. In 1906, work began on the Berman House, designed by noted architect Harvey L. Page. The Neoclassical design with Prairie influences features Corinthian and Doric columns, deep eaves, corbelled chimneys, and a full-height entry with unique inward-curving first-floor porch. Enlarged with wings in the 1920s, the home has since been restored to its original design. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 2006 #13621

338 Madison St., San Antonio, TX, United States

Colonel Edward Miles. Colonel Edward Miles, noted Texas soldier Col. Edward Miles (Feb. 8, 1816-April 1, 1889) came to Texas 1829. Served in battles of Anahuac and San Jacinto in Texas War for Independence and the Indian, Mexican and Civil Wars. Born Natchez, Miss., married Mary Ann Sawyer, 1850. Prominent in civic and public affairs. Recorded, 1964. #3371

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

250th Anniversary of the Founding of San Antonio. Area was first explored and named by Spaniards in 1691. Colonial settlement began here May 1-5, 1718, with founding of Franciscan Missions San Antonio De Valero (later known as "The Alamo"). In Vicinity of the mission was the presidio San Antonio De Bexar, named for one of the great heroes of Spain, the Duc De Bexar, brother of the Viceroy of New Spain. The place was was renamed San Fernando De Bexar, 1731, when it became a municipality- the first in all of Texas. But the name "San Antonio" persisted. Today it is San Antonio in the county of Bexar. In its lifetime it has give allegiance to nine governments, and from 1772 to 1824 it served as the provincial and territorial capitol of Texas. Hemisfair '68- a World's fair held here April 6 to October 6, 1968, on the 250th anniversary of the birth of the city of San Antonio- had as its theme "the confluence of civilzations in the Americans". It orginated as a tribute to the diverse peoples who have occupied the western hemisphere from pre-columbian times: Indians who were the first known inhabitatns; proud spanish conquerors and devout padres; the pioneering american settlers; and the immigrants from many different lands. #4519

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Norton-Polk-Mathis House. This site, from lower lands of Mission San Antonio De Valero, later part of the Vicente Amador Spanish Grant, was bought 1869 by merchant Russel C. Norton, who began building in 1876. HOuse grew with additions of a second story, Victorian Gingerbread rear Gallery, and Italian Renaissance Revival Tower. Later owners were rancher Edwin Polk and renowned trail Bossa and cattleman Ike T. Pryor. Business leader Walter N. Mathis restored Mansion in 1968. #3615

401 King William St., San Antonio, TX, United States

Belgian Transit of Venus Observation Site. The year 1639 marked the first recorded observation of Venus crossing the sun. Sir Edmund Halley (1656-1742) later predicted that using data from such crossings, known as transits, scientists could precisely quantify the astronomical unit of distance and measure the size of the solar system. The transits of Venus predicatably come in pairs, eight years apart, approximately every 120 years. Scientists from around the world traveled to observation sites during the next events, in 1761 and 1769, but timing of the transits was difficult due to the "black drop effect," in which two objects against a bright background appear to blend. For more than a century, astronomers prepared for the next opportunity to record Venus' transit. Jean-Charles Houzeau (1820-1888) was a Belgian astronomer with an eclectic history. From 1859 to 1861, he worked as a surveyor in Uvalde, Texas. An abolitionist, he left Texas at the start of the Civil War. In the late 1870s, he returned to Belgium, where he became director of the Royal Observatory and planned the Belgian teams that would go to the western hemisphere to observe the December 1882 transit of Venus. He chose one site in Chile and one (22 feet east) in San Antonio. Good observations required clear skies, and San Antonio offered the chance of favorable weather, as well as good logistics for communication and transportation. A U.S. Naval Observatory team observed from a site on the grounds of nearby Fort Sam Houston. Using a heliometer, a device he had developed for the observation, Houzeau obtained 124 photographic plates of Venus silhouetted against the sun. Because of clearer conditions, the team in Chile obtained 606. The Belgian findings equaled those of larger nations, and Houzeau's decision to bring an international team to San Antonio provided the city recognition as part of astronomical history. (2005) #13266

621 Pierce Ave, San Antonio, TX, United States

Alamo Low Barracks and Main Gateway. Mission San Antonio de Valero, established nearby in 1718, was relocated here in 1724. By 1762, the Mission Plaza was enclosed by thick stone and adobe walls. The 11 x 14-foot main gateway was located at this site along the south wall. In 1803 Spanish cavalry from San Carlos de Parras del Alamo, Mexico, occupied the secularized mission and built one-story (low) barracks inside the south wall on each side of the main gateway. The Alamo, as the complex came to be known, was occupied in 1835 by Mexican soldiers led by Gen. Cos. They fortified the main gateway with artillery pieces and a defensive lunette, a semi-circular enclosure with deep trenches. In December 1835, Texas patriots captured the Alamo, but by Feb. 23, 1836, were under siege by an armed force led by Gen. Santa Anna. Couriers departed the Alamo through the main gateway during the siege. On March 6 Mexican troops breached the main gateway and retook the Alamo. After the assault, some Mexican military observers and local residents stated that Col. James Bowie and others died in the low barracks. The low barracks and main gateway were leveled in 1871, melding Valero Plaza on the south with the Alamo's plaza to create an open space. (1996) #96

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Saint Philip's Episcopal Church. In 1877 Bishop R. W. Elliott of the Missionary District of West Texas envisioned a church for the nearly four million recently freed black citizens of Texas. His campaign for sunday Schools and other religious services for African Americans was cut short by his retirement, but his actions carved a path for the future. Under the authority of Bishop James Steptoe Johnston, the first Episcopal Church for African Americans in the Diocese of West Texas was established in 1895. The first home of "St. Philip's Episcopal Church for Negroes" was an old German Methodist church in downtown San Antonio later known as La Villita. In 1898, the church began a vocational school for African American young people which in 1923 became known as St. Philip's College. After many years at La Villita, the congregation was forced to find other homes. Beginning in 19917, several locations served in turn as houses of worship for St. Philip's. A new church was erected on Pecan Valley Drive in 1963; it remained the only predominantly African American church in the diocese until 1964. A full parish since 1967, St. Philip's provides support for many Episcopal programs and funds and is active in community outreach and fellowship. (1998) #11749

1310 Pecan Valley Dr., San Antonio, TX, United States

Confederate Cemetery. This cemetery is located within part of a 40-acre grant of land given to the city of San Antonio by the King of Spain. The property was later subdivided into twenty-nine separate cemeteries by City Aldermen, and this area was designated as City Cemetery Number Four. This section became known as the Confederate Cemetery after its purchase in 1885 by the Albert Sidney Johnston Camp No. 1, United Confederate Veterans. The earliest documented burial in this plot, that of Charles Hutcheson, dates to 1855 and was already in place at the time of the Camp's purchase. Prominent Confederate veterans interred here include John Salmon "Rip" Ford, the pioneer Texas political leader and newspaper editor famous for his service as a Texas Ranger; George Wythe Baylor, a political and military leader; and Hamilton P. Bee, Confederate General and Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives. There are over 900 marked burials in the Confederate Cemetery, including those of Civil War veterans, their dependents, and later generations of descendants. Also interred here are veterans of World War I and World War II. #1023

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Cover Cemetery. #17271

709 New Sulphur Springs Road, San Antonio, TX, United States

John Hermann Kampmann. #17369

204 Alamo Plaza, San Antonio, TX, United States

St. Mary's University. #14981

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Espada Aqueduct has been designated a Registered National Historic Landmark under the provisions of the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935. This site possesses exceptional value in commemorating and illustrating the history of the United States. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 1965.

Espada Rd., east of US 281, San Antonio, TX, United States

Protestant Home for Destitute Children. Organized in 1886 as the San Antonio home for destitute children, the Protestant home for destitute children moved into this building in December 1890. The orphanage continued in operation at this site until 1926, when it relocated to larger facilities. This building, designed by noted Texas architect James Riely Gordon, features an unusual mixture of stylistic elements and was intended to blend well with its residential surroundings. Later uses of the structure included a Catholic Mission and Residential apartments. #4133

814 Kentucky Ave, San Antonio, TX, United States

[Masonic emblem] Honoring these Masons James Bonham James Bowie David Crockett Almaron Dickenson William Barret Travis and those unidentified Masons who gave their lives in the Battle of the Alamo, March 6, 1836. Erected by the Grand Lodge of Texas A.F. & A.M. March 6, 1976

The Alamo, San Antonio, TX, United States

Travis Park United Methodist Church. Founded by the Rev. John Wesley DeVilbiss (1818-83), missionary to Republic of Texas, who in 1844 preached first protestant sermon ever heard in San Antonio and in June 1846 organized his congregation in the courthouse. Villagers called him"the little priest that owns the bell, "as he rang calls to worship from vacant lot bought for church on Commerce Street and afterward preached there. The earliest methodist building was a chapel erected in 1852 on Soledad Street and named for Bishop Paine. Cultural life of the city was enriched in 1859 when San Antonio female college, later the University of San Antonio, opened in Paine Chapel. This institution was to merge with others nearly a century later to form trinity University (1942). The Travis Park edifice was begun in pastorate of Dr. W.J. Young (1882) with S.C. Bennett, Francis Crider, G. H. Johnston, James T. Thornton, W.L. Thompson, and William Votaw on building committee. Additions (1901,1910,1922,1941) modified the Romanesque Revival architecture. A 1955 fire prompted major remodeling. Memorial windows depict the congregation's history. Pastors have included many noted men, five having been elected bishops. #5553

230 E. Travis St., San Antonio, TX, United States

Adina de Zavala. As the granddaughter of Lorenzo de Zavala (1789-1836), first vice-president of the Republic of Texas, young Adina de Zavala was exposed to vivid accounts of Texas' Revolutionary and Republican past. She became a guiding force in the preservation of many of Texas' most revered historic structures and sites, including the Alamo, Mission San Francisco de Los Tejas in East Texas, and San Antonio's Spanish Governor's Palace. The "De Zavala Daughters," a women's group formed in Miss Adina in 1889, erected Texas' first historical markers and helped preserve San Antonio's Spanish missions. Her firm belief, later verified, was that remnants of Mission San Antonio de Valero, known in 1836 as the Alamo's long barracks, lay underneath the wooden exterior of buildings adjacent to the Alamo church. By 1893, as president of the De Zavala chapter of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas (DRT), Miss Adina had secured the adjacent property owner's commitment to give the chapter first purchase option. In 1908, upon hearing that the 2-story long barracks were about to be razed, Miss Adina barricaded herself inside the buildings for three days and nights in an effort that ultimately prevented their destruction. (1994) #86

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Alamo Cenotaph. In memory of the heroes who sacrificed their lives at the Alamo, March 6, 1836, in the defense of Texas. "They chose never to surrender nor retreat; these brave hearts with flag still proudly waving, perished in the flames of immortality that their high sacrifice might lead to the founding of this Texas." #95

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Alexander and Alma Oppenheimer Halff House. Built in 1904, this was the home of merchant, banker, rancher and civic leader Alexander Hart Halff and Alma (Oppenheimer) Halff, both members of prominent local families. This imposing residence was designed by C.A. Coughlin and Atlee B. Ayres and merges late 19th century architectural elements with early 20th century modernism. Features of the house include a pressed metal roof and boxed eaves. The family lived here until 1963. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1997 #112

601 Howard Street, San Antonio, TX, United States

Georg Heinrich Buchsenschutz Family Cemetery. Mexican War veteran Georg Heinrich Buchsenschutz came to Texas in 1850. He bought more than 200 acres of farmland in this area in 1860, the same year he wed Friederike Schulmeier, with whom he had ten children. Their oldest daughter, Friederike, died at the age of fifteen in 1881 and was buried on the homestead. Her father was interred near her in 1895. Between 1910 and 1946, eleven other family members were buried at the cemetery. The site remains open to family descendants. Historic Texas Cemetery - 2001 #13797

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Altgelt-Isbell House. [no text - RTHL medallion only] #134

226 King William St., San Antonio, TX, United States

Camp of Stephen F. Austin. Site of the camp of Stephen F. Austin (October 20-226, 1835) while assembling troops preparatory to the attack on the Mexican garrison at San Antonio. After his appointment on November 12 as Commissioner to the United States, the Texans, under Colonels Ben Milam and Frank W. Johnson stormed and captured San Antonio, December 10, 1835. (1936) #245

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Moses Austin. (Front) Born in Connecticut, October fourth 1761; moved to Philadephia in 1783. Thence to Virginia in 1785 and to Missouri in San Antonio on December 23, 1820. Died in Missouri June 10, 1821. (Right) Moses Austin here petitioned the Spanish authorties for the right to bring three-hundred families to Texas and returned to MIssouri to wait the answer. (Back) Exposure and exhaustion during his Texas journey caused his death a few days after receiving notification that his petition had been granted. His dying request was that his son Stephen should carry out his vision. (Left) A man of vision, enterprise, industry and indomitable energy...he most fittingly bequeathed the realization of his plans to his more deliberate, patient, tactful and diplomatic son. (1936) #246

1700 N. Congress, San Antonio, TX, United States

Barbed Wire. At first called "Devil's Rope" by cowboys, barbed wire was patented in 1873 but found little favor with Texas cattlemen until the late 1870s, when its use and practicality were shown in a sensational demonstration here in San Antonio. Its showman-sponsor was John Ware Gates (1855-1911), who came here as agent for a pioneer wire manufacturer. With permission from city officials, he built a barbed wire corral on the Military Plaza, then went into various resorts of cattlemen and boasted of its strength and economy. Some of the ranchers made bets that the wire would not hold wild cattle. While the scoffers looked on, some longhorns where turned into the corral and prodded to frenzy by burning torches. They charged the fence furiously, but the wire held. The experiment was such a success that for a long time orders exceeded the supply of barbed wire. In later life known as "bet-a-million" Gates, the agent founded or organized several wire and steel plants. About 1901 he also invested in Spindletop oil field and helped develop the city of Port Arthur, Texas. With its sister utility, the windmill, barbed wire led to upgrading of beef cattle and enhancement of nutrition and the quality of human life. (1971) #300

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Battle of Rosillo. In this vicinity the Battle of Rosillo was fought on March 28, 1813. Here the "Republican Army of the North" composed of Anglo-Americans, Mexicans and Indians defeated, with heavy loss of life, Spanish Royalists troops commanded by Manuel de Salcedo, Governor of Texas. The prisoners of war were brutally murdered shortly afterwards by order of Colonel Bernardo Gutierrez. (1936) #329

4226 SE Military Drive, San Antonio, TX, United States

Battle of the Salado. The Battle of the Salado, decisive in Texas history, was fought here September 18, 1842. Col. Mathew Caldwell and Capt. John C. Hays, commanding a force of Texas volunteers, opposed the Mexican Army under General Adrian Woll that had captured San Antonio, and with the loss of only one man, checked the last Mexican invasion of Texas and thereby prevented the capture of Austin, capital of the Republic of Texas. (1936) #335

1006 Holbrook, San Antonio, TX, United States

Old S. J. Brooks Home. Built about 1890, this stately late Victorian house combines various influences and styles. The architect was M. T. Eckles, and builder was T. R. Hertzberg, a local businessman. In 1909 Judge Sidney J. Brooks, noted lawyer and first judge of 57th District Court, bought this house. His son Sidney, Jr., (1895-1917), was one of the first U.S. cadets killed training for World War I duty. Brooks Air Force Base was named for him. (1969) #526

155 Croften Ave., San Antonio, TX, United States

Central Christian Church. Evangelist David Pennington came to San Antonio in 1883 and organized this Christian (Disciples of Christ) congregation. He held worship services in a variety of borrowed facilties until a sancturary was constructed at this site in 1884. Central Christian Church was established during a period of great growth in San Antonio due to the coming of the railroad in 1877, and church membership grew as well. Larger church facilities were built in 1903 under the leadership of The Rev. Homer Wilson. The current building was dedicatd in 1950, when Dr. Floyd Allen Bash was Minister. During the Pastorate of the Rev. Hugh McClelland Central Christian Church led in the establishment of the Mexican Christian Institute ( now Inman Christian Center) to Minister to refugees fleeing from the revolution in Mexico and to others in the southwest section of the city. The congregation also led in organizing a Disciples of Christ Church for Spanish-speaking people in San Antonio. Central Christian was the first church in the city to broadcast worship services over radio (1924) and the first to air services on television (1954). For over 100 years, Central Christian Church has provided significant service and leadership to San Antonio. #791

720 N. Main, San Antonio, TX, United States

Chabot House. Originally from England, George Stooks Chabot (1821-1902) was a commission merchant dealing in cotton, wool, and hides. He and his wife Mary (Van Derlip) (1842-1929) built this two-story stone house in 1876. The design includes several galleries with carved bracketing. Chabot's Grandson's, Frederick Charles Chabot (1891-1943), was a noted Historian who wrote a number of books on local and state topics. The Chabot family lived here until 1940. #796

403 Madison St., San Antonio, TX, United States

Christ Episcopal Church. Episcopalians first worshipped in this Laurel Heights neighborhood in 1907, under the auspices of St. Mark's Church downtown. Christ Episcopal Church was formed in 1911, with the Rev. John D. Ridout as its first Rector. In 1913, ground was broken for this Gothic Revival sanctuary, designed by architect Atlee B. Ayres in the spirit of an English Parish Church. A parish hall and educational building was designed in1929 by architect John M. Marriot. #841

301 W. Russell Place, San Antonio, TX, United States

Christopher Columbus Italian Society Hall. Constructed by the Christopher Columbus Italian Society in 1927 to complement the San Francesco Di Paoa Catholic Church next door, this building was dedicated in January 1928. Designed by Richard Vander Stratten and built by Luigi L. Guido and Vincezo Falbo, the hall is a fine example of the classial form, with decorative brick work, pilasters, and stone detailing. It serves as the social and cultural center of San Antonio's Italian-American Communty. #848

201 Piazza Halia, San Antonio, TX, United States

John "Jack" Coker. (May 10, 1789-Jan. 4, 1861) Came from South Carolina to Texas in 1834. Served in Battle of San Jacinto in Texas War for Independence, 1836. Was one of a party with "Deaf" Smith that destroyed Vince's Bridge near Pasadena. This deed may have kept Santa Anna's army from retreat or reinforcement, thus insuring Texas victory. In recognition, the Legislature of Texas awarded to Coker 1,920 acres, where he and his brother Joseph founded Coker community. (1968) #935

231 E. North Loop Rd, San Antonio, TX, United States

Cos House. #1072

503 Villita St., San Antonio, TX, United States

Charles Frederick King. Served in the Texas Army, 1836. Was Mayor of San Antonio, 1847-1849 and 1852-1853. Born in New Hampshire, January 17, 1811. Died in San Antonio, May 13, 1869. #2943

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Eagar House. Down Alamo Street, removed from the excitement of the Plaza is a six-room stone house built at the end of the Civil War, the home of Mrs. Sarah Eagar, born February 19, 1842, the first Anglo-American girl born in San Antonio. The land on which the house was built was bordered by the Alamo acequia and was given to Mrs. Eagar as a wedding present from her father. The ditch is gone, but the house still stands today behind a curtain of greenery. #1324

434 S. Alamo, San Antonio, TX, United States

Old Powder Mill. Started here by early Spanish settlers; for making powder to hunt meat and resist Indians. Used charcoal made of wood of hill country. From bat guano in such caves as Longhorn caverns, got saltpeter. Sulphur came by ox-cart or wagon from Mexico. These ingredients blended were highly explosive. Though powder was dampened during the work of grinding it fine, fires at the mill were not uncommon. In the Civil War, 1861-1865, supplied powder to state and frontier troops and the home guard. Workers young boys and men past military age. #4102

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Staacke Brothers Building. Designed by prominent Texas Architect James Reily Gordon (1864-1937), this structure was built in 1894 to house the successful Carriage business of German immigrant August Frederick Staacke (d.1909). An excellent example of the architecture of a developing commercial society, the Staacke building exhibits elements of the classical and renaissance revival styles. It features granite Corninthian columns and a two-story arcade. #5085

309 E. Commerce, San Antonio, TX, United States

Jefferson Davis Smith. Jefferson (Jeff) Davis Smith, son of Henry M. and Fanny (short) Smith, was born in Kendall County, Texas. Jeff, Age 9, and his brother Clint, age 11, were kidnapped by Lipan and Comache Indians while herding sheep near their home in 1871. Jeff was reportedly bought by Apache Chief Geronimo and made to join his tribe. Mexican bandits captured him to return him to his family for a $1000 reward about 1878. He married Julia Harriet Reed in 1894 and moved to San Antonio. (1993) #4960

231 E. North Loop Rd, San Antonio, TX, United States

The Rev. John Wesley DeVilbiss. Circuit Rider DeVilbiss came to republic to Texas in 1842 to minister on Hispanic Borders in the southwest. He pioneered among immigrants and native Texians to promote Harmony in varies cultures in this far outpost. In county clerk's office in April 1844 he delivered first sermon in English ever give in San Antonio--to lay foundations for confluence of civilizations. Inspired organization of Oak Island Church, 1867 or '68. This building of 1872 holds furniture mande by Devilbis and his son. #1192

3030 DeVilbiss Lane, San Antonio, TX, United States

Gould-Onderdonk House. Home of distinguished Texas artists. In 1878, Robert J. Onderdonk (1852-1917), a noted landscape and portrait painter, gave impetus to the realistic style of painting in Texas by settling in San Antonio. Parents of his bride, Emily Gould, built this house in 1882. Here the artists' children were born and pursued their careers, keeping open house for painters. His son Julian (1882-1922) was an honored painter if impressionistic landscapes. Daughter Eleanor (1884-1964) a well-known miniaturist, art curator of the Witte Museum, 1927-1958. Mrs. L. H. Onderdonk, widow of a second son, has preserved the house. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1973 #13355

128 W French Place, San Antonio, TX, United States

El Quartel (El Cuartel). Built in 1810, on Jan. 22, 1811, Captain Juan Bautista De Las Casas recruited forces here for first overthrow of Spanish rule in Texas by arresting Governor, and other high officials. On March 2, 1811, Juan Zambrano led counter revolutionary force, also recruited here, to overthrow Casas Regime, restore Spanish Rule. Early in 1813, province invaded by Republican Army of the North favoring independence from Spain, only to be reconquered that year. Quartel de San Antonio de Bexar apparently destroyed during Texas Revolution as the defenders chose to make their stand at the Alamo. #1440

401 S. Alamo, San Antonio, TX, United States

Emil Elmendorf House. Businessman and Civic Leader Emil Elmendorf (1850-1898) had this residence constructed in 1884 while he was part owner of Elmendorf and Co. a large San Antonio hardware firm. Designed by noted architect Alfred Giles, the house incorporates both Greek Revival and Victorian styling. It is one of the city's few remaining examples of the raised cottage plan, which features a basement above ground with the main floor on the second level. #1467

509 Burleson St., San Antonio, TX, United States

Enrique Esparza (September, 1824-December 20, 1917). Son of Alamo defender Gregorio Esparaza, 11-year old Enrique, his mother, two brothers, and sister were present at the seige by the Mexican Army (Feb. 23-Mar. 6, 1836). Hidden in a pile of hay, the youth saw his father fall and sitnessed the Heroic death of James Bowie on his sick bed. He then watched the bodies of the Texans burn in two huge pyres. Enrique Esparza's Eye-witness story later became Invaluable, for he was one of few survivors. #1502

?, San Antonio, TX, United States

Old Edward Steves House. Excellent example of lavish Victorian architecture of the late 1800s. Built in 1876 by German immigrant Edward Steves, founder of a family prominent in city financial and social circles. Stuccoed limestone exterior walls are 13" thick. The richly decorated front porch reflects skilled carpentry and millwork. Rain water once drained into a cistern from the mansard roof. The San Antonio Conservation Society acquired house in 1952. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1970.

509 King William Street, San Antonio, TX, United States

A.D.1848. A.D. 1948. The birthplace of Freemasonry in West Texas. This plaque was dedicated January 15, 1948, by Alamo Lodge no. 44 A.F.&A.M., commemorating the one hundredth anniversary of the chartering of the Lodge and honoring those pioneer masons of that era, who founded the lodge upon this site. A.L. 5848 A.L. 5948

The Alamo, San Antonio, TX, United States

Edward Steves Homestead, built 1876. Given in 1952 by his granddaughter, Edna Steves Vaughan, and her husband, Curtis T. Vaughan. Owned, restores and maintained as a house museum by the San Antonio Conservation Society.

509 King William, San Antonio, TX, United States