# Neumann János

(1903-1957)

#### mathematician, president of the American Mathematical Society, scientist, and pioneer of computer technology

Died aged c. 54

Wikidata WikipediaJohn von Neumann (; Hungarian: Neumann János Lajos, pronounced [ˈnɒjmɒn ˈjaːnoʃ ˈlɒjoʃ]; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, engineer and polymath. Von Neumann was generally regarded as the foremost mathematician of his time and said to be "the last representative of the great mathematicians"; who integrated both pure and applied sciences. He made major contributions to a number of fields, including mathematics (foundations of mathematics, functional analysis, ergodic theory, representation theory, operator algebras, geometry, topology, and numerical analysis), physics (quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and quantum statistical mechanics), economics (game theory), computing (Von Neumann architecture, linear programming, self-replicating machines, stochastic computing), and statistics. He was a pioneer of the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics in the development of functional analysis, and a key figure in the development of game theory and the concepts of cellular automata, the universal constructor and the digital computer. He published over 150 papers in his life: about 60 in pure mathematics, 60 in applied mathematics, 20 in physics, and the remainder on special mathematical subjects or non-mathematical ones. His last work, an unfinished manuscript written while he was in the hospital, was later published in book form as The Computer and the Brain. His analysis of the structure of self-replication preceded the discovery of the structure of DNA. In a short list of facts about his life he submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, he stated, "The part of my work I consider most essential is that on quantum mechanics, which developed in Göttingen in 1926, and subsequently in Berlin in 1927–1929. Also, my work on various forms of operator theory, Berlin 1930 and Princeton 1935–1939; on the ergodic theorem, Princeton, 1931–1932." During World War II, von Neumann worked on the Manhattan Project with theoretical physicist Edward Teller, mathematician Stanisław Ulam and others, problem solving key steps in the nuclear physics involved in thermonuclear reactions and the hydrogen bomb. He developed the mathematical models behind the explosive lenses used in the implosion-type nuclear weapon, and coined the term "kiloton" (of TNT), as a measure of the explosive force generated. After the war, he served on the General Advisory Committee of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, and consulted for a number of organizations, including the United States Air Force, the Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory, the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. As a Hungarian émigré, concerned that the Soviets would achieve nuclear superiority, he designed and promoted the policy of mutually assured destruction to limit the arms race.

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## Commemorated on 2 plaques

E házban született és élt 18 éves koraig, Neumann János 1903 - 1957 a XX század egyik legkiválóbb matematikusa. Aki 1951-1952- ben az Amerikai matematikal Társulat elnöke volt Az emléktáblát születésének 100. évfordulójara A Bolyai János Matematikai Társulat és az Amerikai Matematikai Társulat közösen allitotta. In this house was born and lived until he was 18 JOHN VON NEUMANN 1903 - 1957 one of the most outstanding mathematicians of the 20th century, president of the American Mathematical Society in 1951 - 1952. This memorial plaque was erected jointly by the János Bolyai Mathematical Society and the American Mathematical Society on the 100th anniversary of his birth.

Bajcsy-Zsilinsky út 62, Budapest, Hungary where they was born (1903) and lived

Ebben a házban született Neumann János 1903 - 1957 a világhírü Magyar tudós, a számítástechnika úttörője. Az emléktáblát a Neumann János számitógép - Tudomanyi Társaság 1987-ben állította majd 2004-ben újra felavatta.

Bajcsy-Zsilinsky út 62, Budapest, Hungary where they was born (1903)