Sir Isaac Newton PRS
(1642-1727)

Died aged c. 85

Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author (described in his time as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the greatest mathematicians and most influential scientists of all time. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), first published in 1687, established classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing infinitesimal calculus. In Principia, Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint until it was superseded by the theory of relativity. Newton used his mathematical description of gravity to derive Kepler's laws of planetary motion, account for tides, the trajectories of comets, the precession of the equinoxes and other phenomena, eradicating doubt about the Solar System's heliocentricity. He demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and celestial bodies could be accounted for by the same principles. Newton's inference that the Earth is an oblate spheroid was later confirmed by the geodetic measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and others, convincing most European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over earlier systems. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a sophisticated theory of colour based on the observation that a prism separates white light into the colours of the visible spectrum. His work on light was collected in his highly influential book Opticks, published in 1704. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound, and introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. In addition to his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, developed a method for approximating the roots of a function, and classified most of the cubic plane curves. Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. He was a devout but unorthodox Christian who privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England. Beyond his work on the mathematical sciences, Newton dedicated much of his time to the study of alchemy and biblical chronology, but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death. Politically and personally tied to the Whig party, Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–1690 and 1701–1702. He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden (1696–1699) and Master (1699–1727) of the Royal Mint, as well as president of the Royal Society (1703–1727).

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friend of Arthur Storer

Commemorated on 10 plaques

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Sir Isaac Newton 1642-1727 lived here

87 Jermyn Street, Westminster, SW1, London, United Kingdom where they lived

Sir Isaac Newton Lived in a house on this site 1710-1727

Whitcomb Street, London, United Kingdom where they lived

In this manor house Sir Isaac Newton Knt was born 25 December A.D. 1642

Woolsthorpe Manor, Woolsthorpe by Colsterworth, United Kingdom where they was born (1642)

Isaac Newton, 25 December 1642 - 20 March 1727, Scientist, Mathematician, Philosopher. Isaac Newton was born at Woolsthorpe in Lincolnshire. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge in 1660. He propounded the laws of motion, universal gravitation, optics and the basis of differential calculus. He was Master of the Mint from 1699 - 1727, President of the Royal Society from 1703 - 26 and was knighted in 1705. He is supposed to have lived in Leicester Square, but actually lived nearby at 35 St. Martin's Street, and is buried in Westminster Abbey. The bust is by William Calder Marshall (1874).

Newton bust, Leicester Square, London, United Kingdom where they is commemorated

In the hall of The King's School, Isaac Newton was taught 1654 - 1660. This plaque was set up to mark the tercentenary visit of The Royal Society 1960

The King's School, Church Street, NG31 6RP, Grantham, United Kingdom where they was taught (1654-1660)

Sir Isaac Newton 1642 - 1727 site of a house owned by Mr. Clark the apothecary. Isaac Newton lodged here whilst attending the Grammar School, Grantham, between 1655 and 1660. Universally regarded as one of the world's greatest scientists.

14 The George Shopping Centre, Grantham, United Kingdom where they lodged (1655-1660)

The Tree Council in Celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II has designated Newton's Apple Tree one of fifty Great British Trees in recognition of it's place in the national heritage June 2002 Supported by the National Grid

Woolsthorpe Manor, Woolsthorpe by Colsterworth, United Kingdom where they was

Orange Street Congregational Church This church was founded in 1693 by Huguenot refugees who fled from France at the time of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. In 1776 the Chapel passed into the hands of the Church of England. The Rev. Augustus III. Toplady author of "Rock of Ages" was one of its ministers. The Chapel passed into the hands of the Congregationalists in 1787. Adjoining the chapel was Sir Isaac Newtons house which was built in 1710 and condemned in 1913. Mrs Jemima Luke, author of the beloved hymn "I think when we read that sweet story of old" was a teacher in the Sunday School. A copy of the hymn in her own handwriting is in possession of the church.

Orange Street, London, United Kingdom where they was

In the hall of this school Sir Isaac Newton was taught

Church Street, Grantham, United Kingdom where they was taught

Arthur Storer 1645-1687 astronomer & mathematician attended this school with his lifelong friend Sir Isaac Newton. First named astronomer in North America. Mentioned in Newton's Principia

King's School, Church Street, Grantham, United Kingdom where they attended school