# Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

(1646-1716)

Died aged c. 70

Wikidata WikipediaGottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (sometimes spelled Leibnitz) (; German: [ˈɡɔtfʁiːt ˈvɪlhɛlm fɔn ˈlaɪbnɪts] or [ˈlaɪpnɪts]; French: Godefroi Guillaume Leibnitz; 1 July 1646 [O.S. 21 June] – 14 November 1716) was a prominent German polymath and one of the most important logicians, mathematicians and natural philosophers of the Enlightenment. As a representative of the seventeenth-century tradition of rationalism, Leibniz developed, as his most prominent accomplishment, the ideas of differential and integral calculus, independently of Isaac Newton's contemporaneous developments. Mathematical works have consistently favored Leibniz's notation as the conventional expression of calculus. It was only in the 20th century that Leibniz's law of continuity and transcendental law of homogeneity found mathematical implementation (by means of non-standard analysis). He became one of the most prolific inventors in the field of mechanical calculators. While working on adding automatic multiplication and division to Pascal's calculator, he was the first to describe a pinwheel calculator in 1685 and invented the Leibniz wheel, used in the arithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator. He also refined the binary number system, which is the foundation of nearly all digital (electronic, solid-state, discrete logic) computers, including "the Von Neumann machine", which is the standard design paradigm, or "computer architecture", followed from the second half of the 20th Century, and into the 21st. In philosophy, Leibniz is most noted for his optimism, i.e. his conclusion that our universe is, in a restricted sense, the best possible one that God could have created, an idea that was often lampooned by others such as Voltaire. Leibniz, along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza, was one of the three great 17th-century advocates of rationalism. The work of Leibniz anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy, but his philosophy also assimilates elements of the scholastic tradition, notably that conclusions are produced by applying reason to first principles or prior definitions rather than to empirical evidence. Leibniz made major contributions to physics and technology, and anticipated notions that surfaced much later in philosophy, probability theory, biology, medicine, geology, psychology, linguistics, and computer science. He wrote works on philosophy, politics, law, ethics, theology, history, and philology. Leibniz also contributed to the field of library science. While serving as overseer of the Wolfenbüttel library in Germany, he devised a cataloging system that would serve as a guide for many of Europe's largest libraries. Leibniz's contributions to this vast array of subjects were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters, and in unpublished manuscripts. He wrote in several languages, primarily in Latin, French and German but also in English, Italian and Dutch. There is no complete gathering of the writings of Leibniz translated into English.

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## Commemorated on 4 plaques

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 1646 - 1716 studierte an der Universität Jena bei dem Mathematiker Erhard Weigel 1663

Friedrich Schiller University, Fürstengraben 1, Jena, Germany where they studied

Alte Nicolaischule 1512 als erste städtische Bürgerschule eröffnet. Bedeutende Schüler: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian Thomasius, Johann Gottfried Seume, Richard Wagner

English translation: Alte Nicolaishule opened in 1512 as the first municipal bail (?) school. Major students: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian Thomasius, Johann Gottfried Seume, Richard Wagner

Alte Nicolaischule restaurant, Nicolaikirchhof, Leipzig, Germany where they was a student

Leibnizhaus Hier stand von 1652 - 1943 eines der großartigsten Bürgerhäser Deutschlands. Es wurde erbaut von dem Steinbaumeister Hinrich Alfers und dem Zimmermeister Hans Deterberg. Die Bildhauerarbeiten schuf Peter Köster. In diesem Haus lebte und starb 1716 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Der Schauspieler August Wilhelm Iffland wurde hier geboren.

Schmiedegasse, Hannover, Germany where they lived and died (1716)

Neustädter Hof- und Stadtkirche St. Johannis Erbaut 1666 - 1670, der Turm entstand 1691 - 1700. Sie wurde 1870 - 1872 und 1902 - 1903 umgebaut und brannte 1943 aus. 1956 - 1958 wurde sie wieder aufgebaut. Hier ruht der Philosoph Gottfried - Wilhelm Leibniz.

St. Johannis church, Calenberger Neustadt, Hannover, Germany where they lies