King Richard I of England

Duke of Normandy (1189-1199) and King of England (1189-1199)

Died aged 41

Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death in 1199. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, and Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, and was overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and seemed unlikely to become king, but all his brothers except the youngest, John, predeceased their father. Richard is known as Richard Cœur de Lion (Norman French: Le quor de lion) or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior. The troubadour Bertran de Born also called him Richard Oc-e-Non (Occitan for Yes and No), possibly from a reputation for terseness. By the age of 16, Richard had taken command of his own army, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father. Richard was an important Christian commander during the Third Crusade, leading the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France and achieving considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin, although he finalised a peace treaty and ended the campaign without retaking Jerusalem. Richard probably spoke both French and Occitan. He was born in England, where he spent his childhood; before becoming king, however, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine, in the southwest of France. Following his accession, he spent very little time, perhaps as little as six months, in England. Most of his life as king was spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding his kingdom as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he has been perceived as preferring to use it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects. He remains one of the few kings of England remembered more commonly by his epithet than his regnal number, and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France.

Wikidata Wikipedia

Family tree

Commemorated on 3 plaques

Near to this site stood the King's Houses later known as Beaumont Palace. King Richard I was born here in 1157 and King John in 1167

Beaumont Street, Oxford, United Kingdom where they was born (1157)

Kendal Market Hall. Kendal was first granted a charter to hold a market by Richard 1st in 1189 and a free market survived until 1978. The market place originally extended as far south as Finkle Street. The Market Hall was built to commemorate Queen Victoria's Jubilee in 1887.

Market Place, Kendal, United Kingdom where they granted a charter (1189)

Portsmouth Grammar School. Portsmouth's oldest school, founded by Dr. William Smith in 1732, has occupied these buildings, part of the former Cambridge Barracks, since 1926. Richard I built a royal residence here in the late 12th century. Portsmouth Theatre occupied part of the High Street frontage until its demolition in 1854 to make way for the present building.

High Street, Portsmouth, United Kingdom where they had a royal residence