Marie Curie

Died aged c. 67

Marie Salomea Skłodowska–Curie (/ˈkjʊəri/ KURE-ee, French pronunciation: ​[maʁi kyʁi], Polish pronunciation: [ˈmarja skwɔˈdɔfska kʲiˈri]; born Maria Salomea Skłodowska, Polish: [ˈmarja salɔˈmɛa skwɔˈdɔfska]; 7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and the only woman to win a Nobel Prize twice, and the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two scientific fields. Her husband, Pierre Curie, was a co-winner on her first Nobel Prize, making them the first ever married couple to win the Nobel Prize and launching the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was, in 1906, the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris. She was born in Warsaw, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Flying University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her elder sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. In 1895 she married the French physicist Pierre Curie, and she shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with him and with the physicist Henri Becquerel for their pioneering work developing the theory of "radioactivity"—a term she coined. In 1906 Pierre Curie died in a Paris street accident. Marie won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her discovery of the elements polonium and radium, using techniques she invented for isolating radioactive isotopes. Under her direction, the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms by the use of radioactive isotopes. In 1920 she founded the Curie Institute in Paris, and in 1932 the Curie Institute in Warsaw; both remain major centres of medical research. During World War I she developed mobile radiography units to provide X-ray services to field hospitals. While a French citizen, Marie Skłodowska Curie, who used both surnames, never lost her sense of Polish identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland. She named the first chemical element she discovered polonium, after her native country. Marie Curie died in 1934, aged 66, at the Sancellemoz sanatorium in Passy (Haute-Savoie), France, of aplastic anemia from exposure to radiation in the course of her scientific research and in the course of her radiological work at field hospitals during World War I. In addition to her Nobel Prizes, she has received numerous other honours and tributes; in 1995 she became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Paris Panthéon, and Poland declared 2011 the Year of Marie Curie during the International Year of Chemistry. She is the subject of numerous biographical works, where she is also known as Madame Curie.

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Family tree

Commemorated on 7 plaques

En 1898 dans un laboratoire de cette école Pierre et Marie Curie assistés de Gustave Bemont ont découvert le Radium

English translation: In 1898 in a laboratory of this school Pierre and Marie Curie assisted by Gustave Bemont discovered the Radium [AWS Translate]

10 rue Vauquelin, Paris, France where they was

Ici se trouvait le laboratoire dans lequel Pierre et Marie Curie ont decouvert le Radium 1898-1902

English translation: Here was the laboratory in which Pierre and Marie Curie discovered the Radium 1898-1902 [AWS Translate]

rue Pierre Brossolette, Paris, France where they discovered radium (1898-1902)

Marie Curie 1867 - 1934 a habité cet immeuble de 1912 à 1934

English translation: Marie Curie 1867 - 1934 inhabited this building from 1912 to 1934 [AWS Translate]

36 Quai de Béthune, Paris, France where they lived (1912-1934)

En 1898 Pierre et Marie Curie habitaient cet immeuble lorsqu'ils découvrirent le Radium a l'École supérieure de physique et de chimie de Paris

English translation: In 1898 Pierre and Marie Curie lived in this building when they discovered the Radium at the Higher School of Physics and Chemistry of Paris

24 rue de la Glacière, Paris, France where they lived (1898)

Marie Curie (1867-1934), Irène Joliot-Curie (1897-1956), Frédéric Joliot-Curie (1900-1958): trois Prix Nobel de Physique et de Chimie, qui ont dirigé ce laboratoire.

English translation: Marie Curie (1867-1934), Irène Joliot-Curie (1897-1956), Frédéric Joliot-Curie (1900-1958): three Nobel Prize winners in Physics and Chemistry, who led this laboratory. [AWS Translate]

1 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France where they was

Dans cet amphithéâtre, le 5 novembre 1906, Marie Curie première femme professeur à la Sorbonne, donna son premiers cours

English translation: In this amphitheatre, on 5 November 1906, Marie Curie, the first woman professor at the Sorbonne, gave her first lecture

47 Rue des Ecoles, Paris, France where they lectured (1906)

Marie Curie 1867-1934 première femme prix Nobel a vécu ici en 1891.

English translation: Marie Curie 1867-1934 first woman Nobel Prize lived here in 1891. [AWS Translate]

92 avenue Jean-Jaurès, Paris, France where they lived (1891)