Marie Curie

Died aged c. 67

Marie Skłodowska Curie (/ˈkjʊri, kjʊˈriː/; French: [kyʁi]; Polish: [kʲiˈri]; 7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934), born Maria Salomea Skłodowska [ˈmarja salɔˈmɛa skwɔˈdɔfska], was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, the only person to win twice in multiple sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris. She was born in Warsaw, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Floating University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Her achievements included the development of the theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I, she established the first military field radiological centres. While a French citizen, Marie Skłodowska Curie (she used both surnames) never lost her sense of Polish identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland. She named the first chemical element that she discovered‍—‌polonium, which she isolated in 1898‍—‌after her native country. Curie died in 1934, aged 66, at a sanatorium in Sancellemoz (Haute-Savoie), France, due to aplastic anemia brought on by exposure to radiation while carrying test tubes of radium in her pockets during research, and in the course of her service in World War I mobile X-ray units that she had set up.

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Commemorated on 5 plaques

Monceau on Flickr
Monceau on Flickr
Monceau on Flickr
Monceau on Flickr
Monceau on Flickr

En 1898 dans un laboratoire de cette école Pierre et Marie Curie assistés de Gustave Bemont ont découvert le Radium

English translation: In 1898 in a laboratory of this school Pierre and Marie Curie assisted by Gustave Bemont discovered the Radium [AWS Translate]

10 rue Vauquelin, Paris, France where they was

Ici se trouvait le laboratoire dans lequel Pierre et Marie Curie ont decouvert le Radium 1898-1902

English translation: Here was the laboratory in which Pierre and Marie Curie discovered the Radium 1898-1902 [AWS Translate]

rue Pierre Brossolette, Paris, France where they discovered radium (1898-1902)

Marie Curie 1867 - 1934 a habité cet immeuble de 1912 à 1934

English translation: Marie Curie 1867 - 1934 inhabited this building from 1912 to 1934 [AWS Translate]

36 Quai de Béthune, Paris, France where they lived (1912-1934)

En 1898 Pierre et Marie Curie habitaient cet immeuble lorsqu'ils découvrirent le Radium a l'École supérieure de physique et de chimie de Paris

English translation: In 1898 Pierre and Marie Curie lived in this building when they discovered the Radium at the Higher School of Physics and Chemistry of Paris

24 rue de la Glacière, Paris, France where they lived (1898)

Marie Curie (1867-1934), Irène Joliot-Curie (1897-1956), Frédéric Joliot-Curie (1900-1958): trois Prix Nobel de Physique et de Chimie, qui ont dirigé ce laboratoire.

English translation: Marie Curie (1867-1934), Irène Joliot-Curie (1897-1956), Frédéric Joliot-Curie (1900-1958): three Nobel Prize winners in Physics and Chemistry, who led this laboratory. [AWS Translate]

1 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France where they was