Louis Pasteur


Died aged c. 73

Louis Pasteur ForMemRS (/ˈluːi pæˈstɜːr/, French: [lwi pastœʁ]; 27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization, the latter of which was named after him. His research in chemistry led to remarkable breakthroughs in the understanding of the causes and preventions of diseases, which laid down the foundations of hygiene, public health and much of modern medicine. His works are credited to saving millions of lives through the developments of vaccines for rabies and anthrax. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern bacteriology and has been honored as the "father of bacteriology" and the "father of microbiology" (together with Robert Koch; the latter epithet also attributed to Antonie van Leeuwenhoek). Pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation. Under the auspices of the French Academy of Sciences, his experiment demonstrated that in sterilized and sealed flasks, nothing ever developed; conversely, in sterilized but open flasks, microorganisms could grow. For this experiment, the academy awarded him the Alhumbert Prize carrying 2,500 francs in 1862. Pasteur is also regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory of diseases, which was a minor medical concept at the time. His many experiments showed that diseases could be prevented by killing or stopping germs, thereby directly supporting the germ theory and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. Pasteur also made significant in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. Early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what is now called optical isomers. His work led the way to the current understanding of a fundamental principle in the structure of organic compounds. He was the director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, until his death, and his body was interred in a vault beneath the institute. Although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed that he practiced deception to overcome his rivals.

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Commemorated on 5 plaques

Ici fut le Laboratoire de Pasteur. 1857 Fermentations 1860 Gén´rations spontanées 1865 Maladies des Vins et des Bières 1881 Virus et Vaccins 1855 Prophylaxie de la Rage.

English translation: Here was the Pastor's Laboratory. 1857 Fermentations 1860 spontaneous generations 1865 Diseases of Wines and Beers 1881 Viruses and Vaccines 1855 Prophylaxis of the Rage. [AWS Translate]

45, rue d'Ulm, Paris, France where they worked

Pasteur fut en 1838 - 1842-1843 élève de l'institution Barbet qui occupait cet emplacement

English translation: Pasteur was in 1838-1842/1843 a student of the Barbet Institution which occupied this location

8 rue des Feuillantines, Paris, France where they studied

Louis Pasteur 1822-1895 scientifique, fondateur de la microbiologie et découvreur du vaccin contre la rage, est né dans cette maison.

English translation: Louis Pasteur 1822-1895 scientist, founder of microbiology and discoverer of rabies vaccine, was born in this house.

43 rue Pasteur, Dole, France where they was born (1822)

Louis PASTEUR fut baptisé dans cette église le 15 Janvier 1823.

English translation: Louis Pasteur was baptised in this church on January 15, 1823.

Place Nationale, Dole, France where they was baptised (1823)

Louis Pasteur (1822 – 1895) . Doyen de la faculté des sciences de Lille en 1854, c’est dans son laboratoire de Lille que Louis Pasteur commença ses études sur les phénomènes de la fermentation. Après le traitement des vins, ses observations sur la fabrication du vinaigre et de la bière, il triompha de la maladie des vers à soie et aborda l’étiologie des affections virulentes et contagieuses : charbon, septicémie , rouget etc.. La découverte de l’atténuation des virus et la prophylaxie de la rage furent ses suprêmes conquêtes. Ses admirables découvertes, base d’une science nouvelle, le placent au premier rang des bienfaiteurs de l’humanité.

English translation: Louis Pasteur (1822 — 1895). Dean of the Faculty of Sciences of Lille in 1854, it was in his laboratory in Lille that Louis Pasteur began his studies on the phenomena of fermentation. After the processing of the wines, his observations on the manufacture of vinegar and beer, he triumphed over the disease of silkworms and tackled the etiology of virulent and contagious diseases: coal, sepsis, redhead etc. The discovery of virus mitigation and the prophylaxis of rabies were his supreme conquests. His admirable discoveries, the basis of a new science, place him at the forefront of humankind's benefactors. [AWS Translate]

Place Charles de Gaulle, Lille, France where they worked