Abraham Lincoln
(1809-1865)

Died aged c. 56

Abraham Lincoln (/ˈlɪŋkən/; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, the country's greatest moral, cultural, constitutional, and political crisis. He succeeded in preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, bolstering the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy. Lincoln was born into poverty in a log cabin and was raised on the frontier primarily in Indiana. He was self-educated and became a lawyer, Whig Party leader, Illinois state legislator, and U.S. Congressman from Illinois. In 1849, he returned to his law practice but became vexed by the opening of additional lands to slavery as a result of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. He reentered politics in 1854, becoming a leader in the new Republican Party, and he reached a national audience in the 1858 debates against Stephen Douglas. Lincoln ran for President in 1860, sweeping the North in victory. Pro-slavery elements in the South equated his success with the North's rejection of their right to practice slavery, and southern states began seceding from the Union. To secure its independence, the new Confederate States fired on Fort Sumter, a U.S. fort in the South, and Lincoln called up forces to suppress the rebellion and restore the Union. Lincoln, a moderate Republican, had to navigate a contentious array of factions with friends and opponents from both the Democratic and Republican parties. His allies, the War Democrats and the Radical Republicans, demanded harsh treatment of the Southern Confederates. Anti-war Democrats (called "Copperheads") despised Lincoln, and irreconcilable pro-Confederate elements plotted his assassination. He managed the factions by exploiting their mutual enmity, by carefully distributing political patronage, and by appealing to the American people. His Gettysburg Address appealed to nationalistic, republican, egalitarian, libertarian, and democratic sentiments. Lincoln scrutinized the strategy and tactics in the war effort, including the selection of generals and the naval blockade of the South's trade. He suspended habeas corpus in Maryland, and he averted British intervention by defusing the Trent Affair. He engineered the end to slavery with his Emancipation Proclamation, including his order that the Army and Navy liberate, protect, and recruit former slaves. He also encouraged border states to outlaw slavery, and promoted the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which outlawed slavery across the country. Lincoln managed his own successful re-election campaign. He sought to heal the war-torn nation through reconciliation. On April 14, 1865, just days after the war's end at Appomattox, he was attending a play at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C., with his wife Mary when he was fatally shot by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln is remembered as a martyr and hero of the United States and is consistently ranked as one of the greatest presidents in American history.

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Commemorated on 11 plaques

Abraham Lincoln stood here when he raised the flag on Independence Hall February 22nd 1861

Independence Hall, Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA, United States where they stood (1861)

Texas Historical Marker #00421

Black Education in Seguin. Sponsored by the Second Baptist Church, the first public school for blacks in Seguin opened in 1871. Through the efforts of the Rev. Leonard Ilsley (1818-1903), and the Rev. William Baton Ball (1840-1923), a frame school was built on this site, and named Abraham Lincoln School. Ball was the first principal. In 1892, the Lincoln School became a part of the Seguin Public School System. The name was changed to Ball High School in 1925, and ceased to be separate facility for blacks in 1966 when the Seguin Public School System was integrated. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836-1986. #421

225 North Saunders, Seguin, TX, United States where they is commemorated

Adams County. Formed January 22, 1800 out of York County. The name honors President John Adams. Important center of fruit growing industry. County seat of Gettysburg, incorporated 1806, was site in 1863 of key Civil War battle and President Lincoln's great address.

Old Courthouse, Baltimore & W. Middle Sts. (Bus. 15 & PA 116), Gettysburg, PA, United States where they spoke

Wills House. Abraham Lincoln was a guest of David Wills in this house, Nov. 18 and 19, 1863. Here he met Governor Curtin and others, greeted the public, and completed his Gettysburg Address.

SE section of Square, York St. (Rt. 30) & Baltimore/Carlisle St. (Rt. 116), Gettysburg, PA, United States where they was

Abraham Lincoln. On Feb. 21, 1861, the train carrying the President-elect from Springfield, Ill., to his Inauguration in Washington, D.C., stopped briefly near this point. Mr. Lincoln appeared on the rear platform and spoke to the assembled crowd, estimated at more than a thousand people.

Near intersection of Bristol Pike & Pond St., Bristol, PA, United States where they was

Lincoln Biography. The first published biography of Abraham Lincoln was printed in this building on Feb.11, 1860. It was prepared from Lincoln's own notes and served to introduce him to the public as a potential presidential candidate.

28 W. Market St., West Chester, PA, United States where they was published

Abraham Lincoln. On February 22, 1861, while journeying to Washington for his Inauguration, Lincoln stopped at the Jones House, on this site. From the portico of the hotel, he addressed a large crowd gathered in Market Square.

S. Market Square (E side), Harrisburg, PA, United States where they was

US Sanitary Commission Great Central Fair. Held at Logan Square from June 28, 1864, this event raised more than one million dollars for the Union cause during the Civil War. Formed to coordinate efforts of women volunteering to support the war effort, the Commission gave relief and comfort to soldiers and their families. In his only official public appearance in Philadelphia, President Abraham Lincoln addressed the crowd on June 16, praising the important work of the organization.

Logan Sq., 18th & Ben Franklin Pkwy., near Swann Fountain, Philadelphia, PA, United States where they was

Abraham Lincoln. One-half block east of here, on Nov. 18, 1863, Abraham Lincoln spoke briefly to townspeople from his special train. The President was traveling to Gettysburg for the dedication of the National Cemetery.

PA 94 (Carlisle St.) & Park Ave., Hanover, PA, United States where they spoke near (1863)

Kentucky Historical Marker #0011

Todd House. Home of Mary Todd Lincoln from 1832 to 1839. To this house in after years she brought Abraham Lincoln and their children.

578 W. Main St., Lexington, KY, United States where they stayed

Kentucky Historical Marker #1681

Louisville's Steamboat Era. River navigation in 18th century was by flatboat and keelboat. First steamboat, NEW ORLEANS, arrived in Louisville in autumn of 1811. City soon became steamboat center with six lines operating here. Hundreds of these boats were built in area. Wharf teemed with traffic through Civil War. Eight U.S. presidents arrived on this wharf or "levee." (Reverse) Visitors at Louisville Wharf James Monroe - June 1819 Andrew Jackson - June 1819 Alexis de Tocqueville - Dec. 1831 Washington Irving - Sept. 1832 Abraham Lincoln - Sept. 1841 Charles Dickens - Apr. 1842 Walt Whitman - Feb. 1848 Ralph Waldo Emerson - June 1850 Oliver W. Holmes - Sept. 1855 Herman Melville - Jan.1858

At the Wharf, 4th St., Louisville, KY, United States where they visited (1832)