Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte
(1808-1873)

Prince of France (until 1848), Prince of Denmark (until 1810), and 1st Emperor of the French (1852-1870)

Died aged 64

Napoleon III (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of France (as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte) from 1848 to 1852 and the last monarch of France as Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870. A nephew of Napoleon I, he was the last monarch to rule over France. Elected to the presidency of the Second Republic in 1848, he seized power by force in 1851, when he could not constitutionally be reelected; he later proclaimed himself Emperor of the French. He founded the Second Empire, reigning until the defeat of the French Army and his capture by Prussia and its allies at the Battle of Sedan in 1870. Napoleon III was a popular monarch, who oversaw the modernization of the French economy and filled Paris with new boulevards and parks. He expanded the French overseas empire and made the French merchant navy the second largest in the world, engaged in the Second Italian War of Independence as well as the disastrous Franco-Prussian War, in which he commanded his soldiers during the fight and was captured. Napoleon III commissioned a grand reconstruction of Paris carried out by the man he appointed as prefect of the Seine, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann. He expanded and consolidated the railway system throughout the nation and modernized the banking system. Napoleon III promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, which ended famines in France and made the country an agricultural exporter. He negotiated the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier Free Trade Agreement with Britain and similar agreements with France's other European trading partners. Social reforms included giving French workers the right to strike, the right to organize, and the right for women to be admitted to a French university. In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence in Europe and around the world. In Europe, he allied with Britain and defeated Russia in the Crimean War (1853–1856). His regime assisted Italian unification by defeating the Austrian Empire in the Franco-Austrian War and later annexed Savoy and Nice through the Treaty of Turin as its deferred reward. At the same time, his forces defended the Papal States against annexation by Italy. He was also favourable towards the 1859 union of the Danubian Principalities, which resulted in the establishment of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. Napoleon III doubled the area of the French colonial empire with expansions in Asia, the Pacific and Africa. On the other hand, the intervention in Mexico, which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection, ended in total failure. From 1866, Napoleon III had to face the mounting power of Prussia as its Chancellor Otto von Bismarck sought German unification under Prussian leadership. In July 1870, Napoleon III reluctantly declared war on Prussia after pressure by the public. The French Army was rapidly defeated as Napoleon III was captured at Sedan. He was swiftly dethroned and the Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris. He went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.

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Commemorated on 6 plaques

Napoleon III lived here 1848

1c King Street, St James's, Westminster, SW1, London, United Kingdom where they lived

Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873) Napoleon III Emperor of the French stayed here 1838-1839

Napoleon III House - Clarendon Square, Leamington Spa, United Kingdom where they stayed

Prince Louis Napoleon Napoleon III. Stayed here 1846. B.1808. D.1873.

Sydney Place, Bath, United Kingdom where they stayed (1846)

Palais de l'Archevêché L'archevêché fut établi dans ce lieu vers 1340, transporté du faubourg de la Seds, dit "Ville des Tours", trop isolé face à l'insécurite. Le Palais fut sans cesse agrandi jusqu'à la fin du 18e siècle, pour être digne de la puissance spirituelle et temporelle des Princes de l'église qui l'habitaient. Tous les souverains français de passage à Aix y furent logés, de François 1er à Napoléon III. La réconciliation de Louis XIV et de Condé y fut scellée dans le Salon jaune. Un vaste réaménagement fut mené de 1650 à 1730, auquel participa Laurent Vallon. Durant celluici la façade et la porte monumentale de style Régence attribuée à Bernard Toro furent créées (1715). Sécularisé en 1905, il devint un musée en 1910 qui conserve les tapisseries possédées par les archevêques. Ces collections furent enriches de textiles du 20e siècle et d'objets relatifs au Festival d'Art Lyrique. C'est dans sa cour qu'est traditionnellement abrité ce festival international.

English translation: Palace of the Archbishop The archbishop was established in this place around 1340, transported from the suburb of the Seds, called “City of Tours”, too isolated in the face of the insecurity. The Palace was constantly enlarged until the end of the 18th century, to be worthy of the spiritual and temporal power of the Princes of the Church who inhabited it. All the French rulers passing through Aix were housed there, from Francis 1st to Napoleon III. The reconciliation of Louis XIV and Condé was sealed in the Yellow Salon. A major redevelopment was carried out from 1650 to 1730, in which Laurent Vallon participated. During cellici the façade and the monumental Regency-style door attributed to Bernard Toro were created (1715). Secularized in 1905, it became a museum in 1910 that preserves the tapestries owned by the archbishops. These collections were enriched with 20th century textiles and objects related to the Lyric Art Festival. This international festival is traditionally housed in its courtyard. [AWS Translate]

Musée des Tapisseries - Palais de l'Archevêché - Place des Martyrs de la Resistance, Aix-en-Provence, France where they passed through

Napoleon III Empereur Des Francais vecut a Camden Place de 1871 a 1873. Il y mourut le 9 Janvier 1873. L'Imperatrice Eugenie y vecut de 1870 a 1881. Le Prince Imperial y vecut de 1870 a 1879. Il mourut heroiquement en Afrique Du Sud sous l'uniforme Britannique

English translation: Napoleon III Emperor of the French lived in Camden Place from 1871 to 1873. He died there on January 9, 1873. The Imperatrice Eugenie lived there from 1870 to 1881. The Prince Imperial lived there from 1870 to 1879. He died heroically in South Africa Under the British uniform

Camden Place, London, United Kingdom where they lived (1871-1873) and died (1873)

Lord Street Boulevard The exiled Prince Louis Napoleon lived in Southport in 1838 and admired the long straight wide tree-lined Lord Street. Later he remembered Lord Street's elegance when he returned to France as Emperor and he transformed Paris with its now famous Boulevards.

Lord Street junction Duke Street, Southport, United Kingdom where they lived and visited