Subjects of historical plaques - A

A B Row
(1764-present)
Bethel A. M. E. Church
(1808-present)
Alvar and elissa aalto
Alvar Aalto
(1898-1976)
Anna Aaron
(1876-1942)
Ben Aaronovitch
(1964-present)
Carlos Alberto Abadi
(1952-present)
Abba   toppop 1974 5
ABBA
(1972-1982)
Ali Mohammed Abbas
(1922-1979)
Parc Abbatial
Abbe
Ernst Karl Abbe PhD
(1840-1905)
F.g.abberline
Inspector Frederick George Abberline
(1843-1929)
Edward Abbey
(1927-1989)
Abbey Bridge, Tavistock
Abbey Cloisters, Tavistock
Abbey House, Winchester
(1750-present)
Montague Abbott
(1902-1989)
Abbott Baptist Church
Abbott Cemetery
Abbs Field
Hoca Bin Abdullah
Elisabeth Abegg
(1882-1974)
Julie Abegg
John jacob abel
John Jacob Abel MD
(1857-1938)
Robert abel, 1901
Bobby Abel
(1857-1936)
Georg Abel
Julian abele, photograph
Julian Francis Abele
(1881-1950)
Sir (leslie) patrick abercrombie   npg x82059
Patrick Abercrombie
(1879-1957)
Aberdeen Municipal Childrens Theatre
(1956-1968)
Gaston Eugen Aberlé
Abney House, London
(1700-1843)
Roland Abon
(d.1944)
Henry R. Abraham
(1803-1877)
Herta Abraham
(1895-?)
Richard Abraham
(1895-1942)
Paul Abraham
Kurt Abraham
Max Abraham
Robert Abraham
Ruth Nelly Abraham
(1934-present)
Berta Abraham
Betti Abraham
Ilse Abraham
Hedwig Abraham
(1879-1943)
Hedwig Abraham
(1861-1942)
Johanna Abraham
Rosa Abraham
Harold abrahams
Harold Abrahams
(1899-1978)
Arthur Abrahamsohn
Alice Abrahamsohn
Else Abrahamsohn
Elli Abrahamsohn
Emil Abrahamsohn
Margarete Abrahamsohn
Wilhelm Abramczyk
Gertrud Abramczyk
Hirsch Abramowicz
Golde Abramowicz
Leon Abrams FRCS
(1923-2012)
João Carlos Nunes Abreu
Friedrich Abt
Alice Abt-Marcus
Marie Abts-Ermens
(1767-?)
Psm v73 d316 edward goodrich acheson
Edward Goodrich Acheson
(1856-1931)
J. R. Ackerley
(1896-1967)
Liselotte Ackermann
Peter Preston Ackley
(1858-1940)
Self portrait of sarah angelina acland
Sarah Angelina Acland
(1849-1930)
Birt Acres
(1854-1918)
The Action
Action for Children
(1869-present)
Eliza Acton
(1799-1859)
John Adam
(1721-1792)
Robert adam
Robert Adam
(1728-1792)
Richard Adam
Alexander Adam
Felice Adam
Hertha Adam
Thomas Adams
(1807-1873)
A s adams
Abigail Adams
(1744-1818)
Sarahfloweradams1834
Sarah Flower Adams
(1805-1848)
William Bridges Adams
(1797-1872)
William adams   1814 1848
William Adams
(1814-1848)
William notman   henry brooks adams, 1885 (transparent)
Henry Brooks Adams
(1838-1918)
James Adams
Georgia Anne Adams
(1871-1884)
Naomi Lawrence Jay Adams
(1872-1963)
Lorenzo H. Adams
(1849-1912)
Abigail
Abigail Adams
(1765-1813)
Jay Adams
Henry Adams
Us navy 031029 n 6236g 001 a painting of president john adams (1735 1826), 2nd president of the united states, by asher b. durand (1767 1845) crop
John Adams
(1735-1826)
James Adams
(d.2005)
Gladstone Adams
(1880-1966)
Adams Cemetery
(1904-present)
Adams Cemetery
Daniel adamson
Daniel Adamson
(1820-1890)
John Addenbrooke
(1680-1719)
Henry addington by beechey
Henry Addington
(1757-1844)
Dr anthony addington by thomas banks, 1790, v&a
Dr Anthony Addington
(1713-1790)
Richard Addinsell
(1904-1977)
Sir William Addison
(1905-1992)
Joseph addison by sir godfrey kneller, bt
Joseph Addison
(1672-1719)
Matilda Addison
Adelaide amelia louisa theresa caroline of saxe coburg meiningen by sir william beechey
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
(1792-1849)
Bundesarchiv b 145 bild f078072 0004, konrad adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1876-1967)
Robert Mara Adger
(1837-1910)
Benjamin Adkins
(1831-1908)
Hedwig Adler
Friedrich Adler
Hannelore Esther Adler
Max Adler
Paul W. Adler
Rachel Adler
Simon Adler
Heinrich Adler
Louis Adler
Doris Adler
Friedrich Adler
Else Adler
Frank Adler
(1919-1997)
Admiral Duncan Bombing
(1999)
The Admiral, Middlesbrough
Edmond Adout
Æthelflæd as depicted in the cartulary of abingdon abbey
Aethelflaed
(d.918)
Affray
(1944-1951)
Africanus
George Africanus
(1763-1834)
Félicien Agard
(1804-1869)
Howard Agg
Sir James Agg-Gardner
(1846-1928)
Robert Aickman
(1914-1981)
Conrad aiken poet
Conrad Aiken
(1889-1973)
Anna Laetitia Aiken
(1743-1825)
Mary aikenhead   1807
Mary Aikenhead
(1787-1858)
Edmund Aikin
(1780-1820)
Aodh mcaingil maccathmhaoil
The Most Reverend Aodh Mac Aingil
(1571-1626)
William harrison ainsworth by daniel maclise
W. Harrison Ainsworth
(1805-1882)
Atterbury Army Air Field
Birmingham Airport
(1939-present)
George biddell airy
Sir George Biddell Airy PRS FRS
(1801-1892)
Aitken14
Laurel Aitken
(1925-2005)
Naum iljitsch achijeser
Naum Akhiezer
(1901-1980)
Kuzma petrov vodkin, ritratto di anna akhmatova, 1922
Anna Akhmatova
(1889-1966)
Leticia Akselman
Muhammad ibn 'Abbad al-Mu'tamid
(1040-1095)
Stalban
St Alban
(d.209)
Édouard Albert
(1910-1968)
Albert Dock
(1841-present)
Albert Warehouse
(1851-present)
Albion House
(1896-present)
Azuda y Molino de la Albolafia
Bertie Albrecht
(1893-1943)
Marie Albrecht
Afonso de albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
(1453-1515)
Ranji 1897 page 364 2 charles w. alcock
Charles William Alcock
(1842-1907)
George Edgar Alcock
(1902-1975)
William alcock
Captain Sir John W. Alcock RN Capt DSC
(1892-1919)
Louisa may alcott headshot
Louisa May Alcott
(1832-1888)
John Alder
(1712-1780)
Alderley Edge
Aldermanbury Conduit
(1471-present)
Aldersgate
(d.1761)
Catharine Buchanan Alderton JP MP
(1869-1951)
Aldgate
(d.1760)
John Aldrich MP
(1509-1582)
Collin Aldrich
(1801-1842)
Louisa aldrich blake
Dame Dr Louisa Brandreth Aldrich-Blake DBE Ch.M.
(1865-1925)
Ira aldridgebynorthcote
Ira Aldridge
(1807-1867)
Vicentealeixandre
Vicente Aleixandre
(1898-1984)
Cecil f alexander
Cecil Frances Alexander
(1818-1895)
Sir Sidney Alexander
(d.1943)
William Cleverly Alexander
(1840-1916)
Robert Alexander
John Alexander
(d.1874)
William Alexander
(1814-1872)
William Alexander
(1826-1894)
Evelyne Alexander
Gerhard Alexander
Hans Alexander
Elsbeth Alexander
Margarethe Alexander
Martin T.E. Alexander
Anni Alexander
Gisela Alexander
Siegfried Alexander
Wolfgang Alexander
Rev S. T. Alexander
William Alexander
(1768-1841)
Sadalex2
Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander
(1898-1989)
Alfons Alexander
George alexander (actor) 001
Sir George Alexander
(1858-1918)
Richard Dykes Alexander
(1788-1865)
Margarete Alexander
Fritz Ulrich Alexander
Eduard Ludwig Alexander
Inf3 62 a v alexander artist's signature e a b
Sir Albert Victor Alexander CH KG PC
(1885-1965)
Alexander Dobkins Family Cemetery
Alexander Methodist Church
(1854-present)
Queen alexandra, the princess of wales
Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia
(1844-1925)
Alexandra mechanics institute
Alexandra Mechanics' Institute
(1877-present)
Nikolaj Alexjenko
Hinrich Alfers
Alfonso xiii de espa%c3%b1a (1901)
King Alfonso XIII of Spain
(1886-1941)
Michael Gower Alford
Statue d'alfred le grand à winchester
King Alfred the Great
(849-899)
Muhammad ali nywts
Muhammad Ali
(1942-2016)
Alienation Office
(1577-1835)
Adele Alifeld
All Hallows the Great
(d.1893)
All Saints Church
(1843-present)
Elizabeth allan in david copperfield trailer
Elizabeth Allan
(1910-1990)
Sir thomas clifford allbutt
Sir Clifford Allbutt
(1836-1925)
William Allcard
(1801-1861)
Walter Godfrey Allen FSA FRIBA
(1891-1986)
Dolly Allen
(1906-1990)
Benjamin Allen
(1663-1738)
Charlotte Marie Baldwin Allen
Julia Dickinson Allen
Ralphallen
Ralph Allen
(1693-1764)
John kirby allen
John Kirby Allen
(1810-1838)
Jim Allen
(1926-1999)
Osborn Allen
(d.1951)
Augustus Chapman Allen
(1806-1864)
Joseph Allen
(d.1836)
Chiefjusticewilliamallen
William Allen
(1704-1780)
Allenby
Field-Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby
(1861-1936)
William Alley
Abraham Alley
Edward alleyn
Edward Alleyn
Alleyton Cemetery
Margery Allingham
(1904-1966)
Helen allingham, photograph
Helen M. E. Allingham RWS
(1848-1926)
Samuel G. Allison
Don Allum
(1937-1992)
Alma Bridge
Lawrence alma tadema 1870 (2)
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema OM
(1836-1912)
Oskar Almus
(1885-1943)
Margarete Almus
(1895-1943)
Heinz Eugen Almus
(1925-1943)
Paloma Alonso
Alpha Cinematograph Works
Alport Lodge
Max Alsberg
Paula Alschwang
James Alston
(d.1951)
Gertrud Alter
Herbert Altmann
Alice Altmann
Lisbeth Altmann
Paula Altmann
Hugo Altmann
(1869-1943)
Margarete Altmann
Elise Altona
(1880-?)
Afred Altona
Alois alzheimer 003
Alois Alzheimer
(1864-1915)
Thomas Ambler
(1838-1920)
Bert Ambrose
(1896-1971)
Jessie Daniel Ames
(1883-1972)
Oakes Ames
(1874-1950)
Gustav Amigo
Lidia Inés Amigo
Sir Kingsley Amis
(1922-1995)
Cristina Amparan
Ampere andre 1825
André-Marie Ampère
(1775-1836)
Ivan Andreyevich Anaksagorov
Miriam Ancer
Anchor Brewhouse
Les Maisons du Centre Ancien
Ancient Society of York Florists
(1768-present)
Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen
(1880-present)
Arthurs Creek Mechanics' Institute and Free Library
(1887-present)
Prince albert of saxe coburg gotha by franz xaver winterhalter
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(1819-1861)
Lale
Lale Andersen
(1905-1972)
Martin Andersen
(1897-1986)
Louisa anderson
Dr Louisa Garrett Anderson
(1873-1943)
Marian anderson
Marian Anderson
(1897-1993)
Lindsay Anderson
(1923-1994)
Eganderson
Dr Elizabeth Garrett Anderson
(1836-1917)
Sir James Anderson
(1824-1893)
Ian anderson
Ian Anderson
(1947-present)
Charley Anderson
Laurine Cecil Anderson
Sir Alexander Anderson
(1802-1887)
John Anderson
(1853-1911)
Robert Anderson
(1912-1998)
Dr Andrew Anderson, Jr.
(1839-1924)
Charles Llewellyn Andersson JP
Anderton boat lift (1)
Anderton Boat Lift
(1875-present)
Anderton's Hotel
John andre loc
Major John Andre
(1750-1780)
Marc andreessen
Marc L. Andreessen
(1971-present)
Julián Nuñez Andreu D.
John Andrews
Thomas andrews %c3%bcl
Thomas Andrews
(1873-1912)
Trevor Andrews
(d.1951)
Julie andrews park hyatt, sydney, australia 2013
Dame Julie Andrews DBE
(1935-present)
Sybil Andrews
Christian B. Anfinen
(1916-1995)
Angel Inn, Shaftesbury
The Angel, Yeovil
John Angier
(1605-1677)
Ernst H. Angress
Elfriede Angreß
Albert Louis Angreß
Thomas Anguish
(1538-1617)
Renedesanjou
René of Anjou
(1409-1480)
Margaretanjou
Margaret of Anjou
(1430-1482)
Annaofluxembourg
Ann of Bohemia
(1366-1394)
Anne of cleves, by hans holbein the younger
Anne of Cleeves
(1515-1557)
Anne of denmark 1605
Queen Anne of Denmark
(1574-1619)
Lady Mabel Annesley
(1881-1959)
Susanna wesley
Susanna Annesley
(1669-1742)
Mary anning00
Mary Anning
(1799-1847)
Oskar Ansbach
Else Ansbach
Werner Anschel
Max Anschel
Hulda Anschel
Ansdellportrait
Richard Ansdell RA
(1815-1885)
Christopher anstey with his daughter by william hoare
Christopher Anstey
(1724-1805)
John Anstie
Perl-Gittel Anstreicher
Alberto Antebi
Antioch Cemetery
Antioch Cemetery
Walter Antonius
Frieda Antonius
Martha Apelt
(1870-1947)
Charles Apelt
(1862-1944)
Regina Apisdorf
Guillaume apollinaire 1914
Guillaume Apollinaire
(1880-1918)
Appleton
Sir Edward Victor Appleton FRS
(1892-1965)
R. J. Appleton
Erna Apt
Elfriede Apt
Gertrud Apt
Apthorp
(d.1930)
Wootton Wawen Aqueduct
(1813-present)
Louis aragon, 19 juin 1981
Louis Aragon
(1897-1982)
Eugene Aram
(1704-1759)
Beatriz Arango
(d.1977)
Juan Cesáreo Arano
Albert Edward Arber
(d.1941)
WPC Jane Arbuthnot
(1961-1983)
Jacques Archambault
(1604-1688)
John r. archer, mayor of battersea 1914   detail
John Richard Archer
(1863-1932)
Fredarcher3
Fred Archer
(1857-1886)
Miles Archer
Alston Arches
Archway Toll Gate
(1813-1864)
Arco de Felipe V
(1742-present)
Luis Carlos Arcuschin
Miguel Sergio Arcuschin
Alice Arden
Thomas Arden
(d.1551)
Don Arden
(1926-2007)
Nélida Beatriz Ardito
Edward ardizzone   official war artist art.iwmartld4056
Edward Ardizzone
(1900-1979)
Ards Circuit
(1928-1936)
Ardwick Green
Luis Ramón Aredez
Rod argent
Rod Argent
(1945-present)
Jorge Daniel Argente
Argyle United Methodist Church
Else Arian
Siegfried Arian
Richard arkwright junior
Richard Arkwright
(1755-1843)
Sir richard arkwright by mather brown 1790
Sir Richard Arkwright
(1732-1792)
John Arlott OBE
(1914-1991)
Apelt Armadillo Farm
Robert Starke Armistead
Jeanarmour
Jean Armour
(1765-1834)
Armour Cemetery
George Armstrong
(1822-1901)
Josepharmstrong
Joseph Armstrong
(1816-1877)
Charles Nesbitt Frederick Armstrong
(1858-1948)
William george armstrong
Lord William Armstrong
(1810-1900)
H. Clay Armstrong
(1870-1950)
Maison de la Culture Arménienne
Uriel Arnade
Benno Arnade
Klara Arnade
Herbert Arnade
Katja Arnade
Isidor Arndt
Ida Arndt
Josef Arndt
Arne after bartolozzi
Thomas Arne
(1710-1778)
Charlotte Arnfeld
Julius Arnfeld
Clara Arnheim
Leopold Alfred Arnheim
Hans Arnheim
Charlotte Arnhelm
Gertrud Arnhelm
Chronometer maker john arnold, attributed to mason chamberlin
John Arnold
(1736-1799)
Matthew arnold
Matthew Arnold
(1822-1888)
Paul Arnold
Sir edwin arnold (1832 1904)
Sir Edwin Arnold
(1832-1904)
Benedict arnold. copy of engraving by h. b. hall after john trumbull, published 1879., 1931   1932   nara   532921
General Benedict Arnold
(1741-1801)
Psm v10 d008 neil arnott
Neil Arnott
(1789-1874)
Edith Arnsdorff
Charlotte Arnsfeld
Max Arnsfeld
Arthur Arnstein
Kurt Aron
Berl Lot Aron
Reisel Johanna Heme Aron
Hermann Aron
(1874-1941)
Martha Sophie Aron
(1875-1942)
Siegbert Aron
Ruth Aron
Martha Aron
Gertrud Aron
Joachim Max Aronade
Richard Aronhold
Henriette Aronhold
Doris Aronhold
Paul Aronsbach
(1887-?)
Selma Aronsbach
(1895-1942)
Manfred Aronsbach
(1936-present)
Leo Aronsbach
Flora Aronsbach
Erika Aronsbach
(1924-1942)
Gertrud Aronsfeld
Erwin Aronsohn
Rosalie Aronsohn
Philippine Aronsohn
Jenny Aronson
Luise Aronstein
(1879-?)
Dr Philipp Aronstein
(1862-1942)
The Arpley Cannons bases
Arpley Meadows bombing
(1940)
Claudio arrau 1 allan warren
Claudio Arrau
(1903-1991)
Cristina Arrillaga
Mary Arrington
(1820-1881)
Dolinda I. Arroyo
Prince arthur, duke of connaught
Arthur
(1850-1942)
Arth tapestry2
Arthur
Artists Rifles
(1860-?)
Arts Centre, Bridgwater
(1946-present)
Dr Gennaro Felicè Arucci
(1738-1800)
Sir Thomas Arundell
(1502-1552)
Sir Ove Nyquist Arup
(1895-1988)
Felix Arvers
(1806-1850)
Philip Arwas
(d.1908)
Hans Asch
Bruno Asch
Clara Asch
Martin Asch
Elisabeth Aschenheim
Lilly Ascher
Berthold Ascher
Tana Ascher
Karin Jenny Ascher
Lisette Ascher
Oscar Ascher
Cäcilie Ascher
Mirjam Ascher
Moritz Ascher
Ruth Ascher
Else Ascher
Marianne Asdell
John Asger
(d.1436)
John ash (1723 1798) colour
Dr John Ash
(1723-1798)
C. R. Ashbee
(1863-1942)
1455399 90388f4f 120x120
The Ashbourne Gingerbread Shop
(1499-?)
Ashby De La Zouch Canal
(1804-?)
Sidney Ashcroft
Ashfield Works
Daisy ashford 1919
Daisy Ashford
(1881-1972)
Bernard Ashley
(1926-2009)
George Ashley
(d.1951)
Laura Ashley
(1925-1985)
Sir William Ashley
(1860-1927)
Mary C. Ashley
(d.1905)
Anthony ashley cooper, 7th earl of shaftesbury   project gutenberg etext 13103
Sir Anthony Ashley-Cooper KG
(1801-1885)
Elias ashmole by john riley
Elias Ashmole
(1617-1692)
Albert Ashmore
(1906-1985)
Mark ashton 1986
Mark Ashton
(1960-1987)
Margaret Ashton
(1856-1937)
Frederick Ashton
(1904-1988)
Ashton Munitions Explosion
(1917)
Ashton Parish Workhouse
(1730-1851)
Herbert George Ashwell OBE MRCS
Marie Ashworth
Jenny Askanas
Chaim Hermann Askanas
Arthur Askey CBE
(1900-1982)
Joseph Aspdin
(1778-1855)
Herbert henry asquith
Herbert Henry Asquith
(1852-1928)
David (Davicso) Asriel
Helene Asriel
Assay Office, Birmingham
(1773-present)
Assembly Rooms, Derby
(1765-1974)
Peter Themis Assimack
(1961-1996)
Automobile Association
Soil Association
Assumption of the Virgin Mary Greek Orthodox Church
Serafina astafieva c. 1890s
Princess Seraphine Astafieva
(1876-1934)
William T. Astbury FRS
(1898-1961)
Dame Joanna Astley
Francis william aston
Francis William Aston
(1877-1945)
Aston University
(1966-present)
Facupfinal1905newcastlevilla
Aston Villa Football Club
(1874-present)
Nancy astor
Nancy Astor
(1879-1964)
Louisa Astrop
(1922-2005)
Atascosa County Courthouse
Athenaeum Club
(1891-present)
Elmore library 002
Elmore Athenaeum Hall
(1869-present)
Lilydale mechanics institute
Athenaeum, Lilydale
Melbourne athenaeum
Athenaeum, Melbourne
(1839-present)
Athina B
(d.1980)
Princess alice countess of athlone
Alice, Countess of Athlone
(1883-1981)
Drama department of the new york times newspaper.8d22679v
Brooks Atkinson
(1894-1984)
Edward Atkinson
James Atkinson
Paul Atkinson
(1946-2004)
Reginald Atkinson
John Atkinson
George Walter Atkinson
Moses Atkinson
Atkinsons Carillon
(1924-present)
The Atlas Bell
(1812-?)
Atlas Way
Atlas Works
Atlas Works
(1885-1958)
Richardattenborough07tiff
Lord Richard Attenborough
(1923-2014)
Attercliffe Baths
(1879-?)
Clement attlee
Clement Richard Attlee
(1883-1967)
Mabel Lucie Attwell
(1879-1964)
Thomasattwood
Thomas Attwood
(1783-1856)
Audenvanvechten1939
Wystan Hugh Auden
(1907-1973)
Marguerite audoux   project gutenberg etext 20572
Marguerite Audoux
(1863-1937)
Berthold Auerbach
Bruno Albert Auerbach
Charlotte Auerbach
Lisbeth Auerbach
Felix Auerbach
Martha Auerbach
Alfred Auerbach
Hans Auerbach
Ida Julie Auerbach
Kurt B. Auerbach
Peter Lorenz Auerbach
Max Auerbach
Rebecca Aufrecht
Adolf Aufrecht
Rudolf Augustin
Augustinian Priory
(1119-?)
Cumberland reynolds
William Augustus
(1721-1765)
Sri aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
(1872-1950)
Fritz Ausländer
Henry Austen
(1771-1850)
Cassandraausten janeausten(c.1810) hires
Jane Austen
(1775-1817)
Moses austin p83 012 0012 enhanced 1
Moses Austin
(1761-1821)
Herbert austin 1905
Herbert Austin
(1866-1941)
J. L. Austin
(1911-1960)
Austin Friary, Northallerton
Austin Mini
(1959-2000)
The Austin Village
(1917-present)
Postomat windows p1020441
Enfield Barclays automated teller machine
(1967-present)
James L. Autry
(1859-1920)
Patrick macnee linda thorson 1968
The Avengers
Willis Avery
Charles Avery
(1784-1858)
Avery College
(1849-?)
Marta Inés Avila
Pedro menéndez de avilés
Pedro Menendez de Aviles
(1519-1574)
Avison
Charles Avison
(1709-1780)
Maison des Avocats
Dulcinea Ann Holland Thompson Avriett
(1834-1920)
Avro
(1910-1963)
Robert Awde
(1838-1921)
Rev w awdry and peter sam   1988 05 14
Wilbert Vere Awdry
(1911-1997)
Ida Awner
Sir Alfred Ayer
(1910-1989)
John Law Ayers
June Aylward
(1891-1965)
Gladys aylward
Gladys Aylward
(1902-1970)
Marcel aymé 1929
Marcel Aymé
(1902-1967)
Ayrton hertha bw painting
Hertha Ayrton
(1854-1923)
Granada Ayuntamiento
(1837-present)
Ronda Ayuntamiento
(1734-present)
Eduardo Azurmendi
Joan of arc miniature graded
St Jeanne d'Arc
(1412-1431)