Sam Houston

United States Senator (1846-1859) and 7th Governor of Texas (1859-1861)

Died aged 70

Samuel Houston (/ˈhjuːstən/, HEW-stən; March 2, 1793 – July 26, 1863) was an American general and statesman who played an important role in the Texas Revolution. He served as the first and third president of the Republic of Texas and was one of the first two individuals to represent Texas in the United States Senate. He also served as the sixth governor of Tennessee and the seventh governor of Texas, the only individual to be elected governor of two different states in the United States. Born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, Houston and his family migrated to Maryville, Tennessee, when Houston was a teenager. Houston later ran away from home and spent about three years living with the Cherokee, becoming known as Raven. He served under General Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812, and after the war, he presided over the removal of many Cherokee from Tennessee. With the support of Jackson and others, Houston won election to the United States House of Representatives in 1823. He strongly supported Jackson's presidential candidacies, and in 1827, Houston was elected as the governor of Tennessee. In 1829, after divorcing his first wife, Houston resigned from office, and moved to Arkansas Territory. Houston settled in Texas in 1832. After the Battle of Gonzales, he helped organize Texas's provisional government and was selected as the top-ranking official in the Texian Army. He led the Texan Army to victory at the Battle of San Jacinto, the decisive battle in Texas's war for independence against Mexico. After the war, Houston won election in the 1836 Texas presidential election. He left office due to term limits in 1838 but won election to another term in the 1841 Texas presidential election. Houston played a key role in the annexation of Texas by the United States in 1845, and in 1846, he was elected to represent Texas in the United States Senate. He joined the Democratic Party and supported President James K. Polk's prosecution of the Mexican–American War. His Senate record was marked by his unionism and opposition to extremists from both the North and South. He voted for the Compromise of 1850, which settled many of the territorial issues left over from the Mexican–American War and the annexation of Texas. He later voted against the Kansas–Nebraska Act because he believed it would lead to increased sectional tensions over slavery, and his opposition to that act led him to leave the Democratic Party. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the presidential nomination of the American Party in the 1856 presidential election and the Constitutional Union Party in the 1860 presidential election. In 1859, Houston won election as the governor of Texas. In this role, he opposed secession and unsuccessfully sought to keep Texas out of the Confederate States of America. He was forced out of office in 1861 and died in 1863. Houston's name has been honored in numerous ways, and he is the eponym of the city of Houston, the fourth most populous city in the United States.

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Commemorated on 56 plaques

Sam Houston's Camp. #4504
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Sam Houston Spoke Here On this Cherokee Trace site he had visited 25 years earlier, when he lived with the Indians, Sam Houston twice spoke as the leading Texas statesman-- on June 10, 1857, as U. S. Senator, and early in 1861 as governor. At both times he spoke against secession and in favor of the Union.

Upshur County Court House, E Marshall St, Gilmer, TX, United States where they spoke (1857) and spoke (1861)

Texas Historical Marker #00341

Baylor University. World's largest Baptist University. Founded under charter issued by congress of Republic of Texas on Feb. 1, 1845, and in continuous operation ever since. Named for Judge R.E.B. Baylor (1791-1873), a native of Kentucky, an 1820s United States Congressman from Alabama, one of the first district judges in Texas. Judge Baylor, with the Rev. William Tryon and the Rev. James Huckins, obtained the charter under the terms of a resolution of the Union Baptist Association to establish "A Baptist meet the needs of all the ages to come." First location was at Independence, in Washington County. Early presidents were Henry L. Graves (1847-52), Refus C. Burleson (1852-61), George W. Baines (1861-63), and William Carey Crane (1863-85). Texas supreme court justices Abner S. Limpscomb, Royal T. Wheeler, and Judge Baylor taught the first law classes. An early benefactor was General Sam Houston, who sent his children to the university and who initiated construction of the first woman's building. In 1886 the university moved to Waco, where new schools have been added and the plant enlarged in later years. The Armstrong Browning Library, Texana collections, and other features are world renowned. #341

?, Waco, TX, United States where they funded

Texas Historical Marker #00576

Burns Station Cemetery. Reminder of De Witt County's earliest settlement, Irish Creek, begun in 1826 when Arthur Burns (1780-1856) migrated from Missouri and Iowa to Texas. He joined colony of Green DeWitt and built a 2-story log home near here. Used as a refuge during Indian raids, the house was also visited by General Sam Houston, 1836. On Dec. 19, 1837, President Houston appointed Burns to board of land commissioners, Victoria County (which then encompassed this portion of DeWitt County). Area's first grist mill (operated 1856-69 by Moses Rankin) was established by Burns. Near it clustered the Sherman and Thomas General Store, Charlie White's Blacksmith Shop, and Warn Hardware. The Irish Creek settlement became known as Burns Station, as it was a stage stop on the Victoria - Gonzales Road. Cemetery site, donated 1853 by Ardelia Burns Cook, daughter of Arthur Burns, adjoined the Irish Creek Methodist Church. In oldest marked grave lies Joseph Allen (1812-53), born in Ireland. Here also is buried Sarah, Arthur Burns' widow. (Burns is buried in Iowa). In 1870s, Burns Station lost business to Thomaston and Cuero, but was a stop on the Gulf, West Texas and Pacific Railroad until the name was changed in 1902 to "Verhelle," honoring a railroad official. Incise on back: Cemetery restored 1969 by work of relatives and the Southwest Texas Methodist conference #576

?, Cuero, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #00690

Campsite Marking Start of San Jacinto Campaign. On March 11, 1836, Sam Houston, leader of Texas Revolutionary Forces, arrived here to organize the second volunteer army. On March 13, he heard of the massacre of Alamo defenders and that the Mexican army was advancing toward Gonzales. He ordered the town burned so that the enemy might find no food or shelter upon their arrival. He then marched east, establishing his next camp at "Sam Houston Oak" (10 miles east). After several weeks of maneuvering his forces into an advantageous position, he led them to victory at San Jacinto on April 21. #690

?, Gonzales, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #02248

Grand Lodge of Texas, A.F. & A.M.. The first attempt to establish freemasonry in Texas occurred in 1828 when Stephen F. Austin and a group of Masons petitioned the Mexican National Grand Lodge for a Lodge Charter. Due to the political upheaval of the time, nothing became of the petition. Five Master Masons met in Brazoria in March 1835 and sent a petition to Grand Master John H. Holland of Lousiana asking for a charter to form a lodge in Texas. The charter was delivered to Anson Jones, who carried it during the battle of San Jacinto. Holland Lodge was located in Houston and by 1837 was joined by Milam Lodge in Nacogdoches and McFarland Lodge in San Augustine. On December 20, 1837, the three lodges met in convention and created the Grand Lodge of the Republic of Texas. Sam Houston presided at the convention, and Anson Jones was elected First Grand Master. The Grand Lodge of the Republic of Texas. Sam Houston presided at the convention, and Anson Jones was elected first grand master. The Grand Lodge met in various locations before permanently locating in Waco in 1902. Masons were at the forefront of Texas history. Twenty-two of the signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence were Masons. Members of the organization defended the Alamo and fought at the Battle of San Jacinto. All of the presidents and vice presidents of the Republic of Texas were Masons. #2248

?, Waco, TX, United States where they presided as Master of Ceremonies

Texas Historical Marker #04367

Route of Gen. Sam Houston to San Jacinto. Stricken with news of the fall of the Alamo and threatened by a massive Mexican army, Sam Houston gathered the nucleus of a Texan army here, issued orders to burn this town (to hinder the Mexicans) and marched east, March 13, 1836. He won Victory at San Jacinto, April 21. #4367

?, Gonzales, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #04375

Route of the Texas Army. In Texas Revolution, Gen. Sam Houston and his Texas Army crossed Rocky Creek near this spot, March 15, 1836, retreating eastward from town of Gonzales. Their victory 5 weeks later over Santa Anna's Mexican Army, in Battle of San Jacinto, brought freedom to Texas, April 21. #4375

?, Hallettsville, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #04504

Sam Houston's Camp. #4504

?, Gonzales, TX, United States where they stayed

Texas Historical Marker #04505

Sam Houston's Camp West of the Brazos. (March 31-April 13, 1836) At the end of March 1836, following the defeat of Texan forces at the Alamo and at Goliad, the retreating Texas army led by Gen. Sam Houston encamped at this site. While in camp here Houston's forces were reorganized and received much needed reinforcements and supplies, including the "Twin Sisters," a pair of cannon. After training his soldiers here for two weeks, Houston led them across the river in pursuit of the Mexican army, which they engaged and defeated on April 21 in the Battle of San Jacinto, the final battle of the Texas Revolution. (1990) #4505

?, Bellville, TX, United States where they stayed

Texas Historical Marker #04612

Scottish Rite Cathedral. Scottish Rite Masonry in San Antonio dates to 1912, when a charter was granted by the Soverign Grand Inspector General of Texas. The orgnization grew slowly until World War I, when many soldiers stationed in San Antonio became members. This site was purchased in 1919,and plans were made to erect a new temple. Construction began in 1922 on this structure. Completed two years later at a cost of $1.5 million, the Cathedral was dedicated in June 1924. It soon became the center of Masonic activities for South Texas. Features of the five-and-one-half story clasical revival temple include an imposing gable front bay, eight Corinthian fluted columns a terra cotta frieze on the primary temple building, and stepped central mass. The elaboarately sculpted bronze front doors, executed over two-year period by noted artist Pompeo Coppini (1870-1957), feature figures of George Washington and Sam Houston, both members of the Masonic fraternity. The Scottish Rite Cathedral has been a San Antonio attraction since its construction. In recent years it has become a center for the performing arts and other cultural activties. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1987 #4612

308 East Avenue E, San Antonio, TX, United States where they is commemorated

Texas Historical Marker #05220

Temple Lea Houston (August 12, 1860-August 15, 1905). (August 12, 1860 - August 15, 1905) Born in the Texas Governor's Mansion, the eighth and last child of Sam Houston (1793-1863) and his wife Margaret; educated at Baylor University, Texas A&M, and in a law office, Temple Houston came in 1881 to this region as district attorney for the 35th Judicial District. He married Laura Cross of Mobeetie, 1882. Tall and handsome, he resembled his father-- a fact cited when he ran for the Texas Senate in 1884. He won, and was seated before reaching legal age for the office. While serving in the Senate, he built a home near "Panhandle City." During his two terms, he became a leader in spite of his youth, advancing legislation favorable to frontiersmen in this area. When a new capitol was dedicated in Austin in 1888, he made the major speech, taking pride that lands in the Panhandle had paid for the magnificent building. Amid the ovations of that day were pleas that he run for Governor or United States Congressman, but he declined. About 1893 he moved to Oklahoma and gained added fame as a lawyer and orator. Thus the fledgling of "The Raven" became a legend in his own time. He was the father of two daughters and three sons. The Oklahoma Historical Society has honored him by placing a marker at his grave in Woodward. #5220

501 Elsie, Panhandle, TX, United States where they lived

Texas Historical Marker #05510

Torrey's Trading Post No. 2. (2.3 mi. north on bluff above Trading House Creek) Site of greatest Indian council in Republic of Texas. There President Sam Houston made famous 1844 peace talks to assembled chiefs. A "listening post" for frontier; aided in peacekeeping. Built 1844 and run by Geo. Barnard for the Torrey Brothers. In 1849 the post was moved to Waco by Barnard. (1966) #5510

SH 6, Waco, TX, United States where they spoke

Texas Historical Marker #06558

Phillips-Sale House. New York native Alexander Hamilton Phillips (1804-1880) moved to Texas in 1837. He served in both the Congress of the Republic of Texas and the Legislature of the State of Texas. He moved his law practice to Victoria in the 1840s, and in 1851 hired local building contractor Richard Owens to build this house. Constructed of bricks made by slaves and fired at Owen's brickyard on the Guadalupe River, the house became a center of social activity in Victoria. During his 1857 campaign for Governor, Sam Houston attended a ball and reception here and made a speech from the front porch. Attorney Samuel Dabney purchased the house in 1893 and hired noted local architect Jules Leffland to remodel it. Leffland's changes, which included the application of stucco over the original brick exterior, reflect the popular interest in Colonial Revival architecture during the 1890s. Walter Wynne Sale (1887-1967), a medical doctor and decorated World War I veteran, bought the property in 1932, and it has remained in his family. Among the house's prominent features are a broad two-story porch with Classical columns, and a front entry with sidelights and elliptically arched transom. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1967 #6558

701 N. Craig, Victoria, TX, United States where they spoke

Texas Historical Marker #06916

Site of Sam Houston Speeches. Two speeches were delivered by Sam Houston in Rusk. The first, in 1855, was a debate with politician Frank Bowden. Houston, a U.S. Senator, was on a tour through central and east Texas trying to regain public favor after voting against the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Political debates were popular entertainment of the time, and were well attended. Houston campaigned for governor here in 1857. A newspaper account states his speech lasted three hours, but brought little enthusiasm from the crowd. When he finished speaking, applause was weak and many of the benches were empty. #6916

?, Rusk, TX, United States where they spoke

Texas Historical Marker #07161

Wilbarger House. Built 1842 by Major A. M. Brooks of hand-hewn cedar and pine in Colonial style. Bought 1850's by James H. Wilbarger, son of famous Indian victim Josiah P. Wilbarger. Home has been scene of social and musical events, and remains in original condition except for additions. Sam Houston, president of Texas, was a famous guest. The house contains family antiques. Owned by members of fourth family generation, Mrs. Ivor W. Young and Mrs. Lee W. Peterson. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1967 #7161

1403 N. Main St., Bastrop, TX, United States where they stayed

Texas Historical Marker #07335

Austin College. Oldest college in Texas operating under original charter. Founded in 1849 by the Presbytery of Brazos under leadership of Daniel Baker. Named for Stephen F. Austin, father of Texas. Opened in Huntsville with Sam Houston, Anson Jones, and Henderson Yoakum-- Texas statesmen-- among original trustees. Bell donated by Houston hangs in present chapel. For years competence in Greek and Latin was required for admittance. In 1855 opened the first law school in state, and became the first college in Texas to award graduate degrees in 1856. Had the first chapter in Texas of any national fraternity (Phi Delta Theta). Remained open during Civil War although most students joined Confederate army. Post-war problems and epidemics caused move to Sherman in 1876. Oldest building is Luckett Hall (1908), the first building on this campus having been destroyed by arson in 1913. Erected first college Y. M. C. A. building west of the Mississippi River, 1911. In World War I, cooperated with the Student Army Training Corps and admitted first coeds. In World War II, aided Army Air Training Corps. Founded to serve youth of pioneer families, college now enrolls students from all over the world and is a leader in creative Christian liberal arts education. Incise on back: This marker made possible by Austin College Circle, 1970. #7335

900 N. Grand Ave., Sherman, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #07666

Site of Raven Hill. Plantation home of General Sam Houston who was called "The Raven" by the Cherokee Indians. Built in 1844; sold before 1860. #7666

?, Oakhurst, TX, United States where they lived

Texas Historical Marker #08351

Site of Home of General Sam Houston. Site of the home of General Sam Houston and family; Original house built in 1837 by Thomas Barron; first occupied by the Houstons in 1854; torn down and rebuilt in 1897 by James Dallas. #8351

?, Powell, TX, United States where they lived

Texas Historical Marker #08357

Independence. Settled in 1824. Named in 1836 to commemorate Texas independence. Important early-day town. Baylor University began here, 1845. Residence of family of Gen. Sam Houston, Texas hero, 1853-1867. Mrs. Houston is buried here. Confederate Quartermaster Sub-depot, 1864. Many historic sites marked. #8357

?, Independence, TX, United States where they lived

Texas Historical Marker #08366

Lockhart Plantation. Home built 1850 by Dr. John W. Lockhart, Chappell Hill physician and frequent host of Sam Houston. House is of cedar and black walnut hand-cut on rich 1,000-acre place that had its own blacksmith shop, cotton gin, store, other facilities. #8366

?, Chappell Hill, TX, United States where they stayed

Texas Historical Marker #08385

Site of Old St. Anthony Hotel. Center of Brenham hospitality for 122 years. Originally a two-story log stage depot adjoined by a log cabin complex called the Washington County Hotel. Changed owners several times through the years. General Sam Houston once stayed here while campaigning against secession. Renamed St. Anthony Hotel 1914, by new owner Mrs. A. A. Hacker, who did extensive remodeling. Served as a transfer station for train passengers and as a bus terminal. Her hotel was noted for more than 30 years for its hospitality and annual Christmas Day open house and egg nog party. #8385

?, Brenham, TX, United States where they stayed

Texas Historical Marker #08399

Washington County. To the memory of those courageous souls, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention held here March 1-17, 1836 who declared Texas free, organized a Republic, and framed its constitution Jessie B. Badgett; Dr. George Washington Barnett; Thomas Barnett; Stephen William Blount; John White Bower; Asa Brigham; Andrew Briscoe; John Wheeler Bunton; John S.D. Byrom; Mathew Caldwell; Samuel Price Carson; George Campbell Childress; William Clark, Jr.; Robert M. Coleman; James Collingsworth; Edward Conrad; William Carroll Crawford; Richard Ellis; Dr. Stephen Hendrickson Everitt; John Fisher; Samuel Rhoades Fisher; James Gaines; Dr. Thomas Jefferson Gazley; Benjamin Briggs Goodrich; Jesse Grimes; Robert Hamilton; Bailey Hardeman; Augustine Blackburn Hardin; Samuel Houston; William Demetris Lacey; Albert Hamilton Latimer; Edward Oswald Legrand; Samuel Augustus Maverick; Collin McKinney; Michel Branamour Menard; William Menefee; John W. Moore; Dr. Junius William Mottley; Jose Antonio Navarro; Martin Parmer; Sydney Oswald Pennington; Robert Potter; James Power; John S. Roberts; Sterling Clack Robertson; Francisco Ruiz; Thomas Jefferson Rusk; William Bennett Scates; George Washington Smyth; Elijah Stapp; Dr. Charles Bellinger Stewart; James Gibson Swisher; Charles Standfield Taylor; David Thomas; John Turner; Edwin Waller; Claiborne West; James B. Woods; Dr. Lorenzo De Zavala May these names be engraved on the hearts of all Texans #8399

?, Washington-on-the-Brazos, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #08417

Old Baptist Church. Organized in 1839. Here Sam Houston was converted and baptised in Rocky Creek in 1854. The present building was erected in 1872 #8417

?, Independence, TX, United States where they worshipped

Texas Historical Marker #08421

General Sam Houston Baptismal Site. One and one-half miles south General Sam Houston was baptized by Rufus C. Burleson, Baptist minister and president of Baylor University, November 19, 1854 in Rocky Creek. #8421

?, Independence, TX, United States where they was baptised (1854)

Texas Historical Marker #08450

First Baptist Church of Huntsville. One of the earliest Baptist congregations in Texas, this church was organized in 1844 by The Rev. Z. N. Morrell, who served as first pastor. The Rev. J. W. D. Creath, a missionary from Virginia, was the second, and The Rev. G. W. Baines, known now as an ancestor of U.S. President Lyndon Baines Johnson, was the third. General Sam Houston, ex-president of the Republic of Texas, was a member. The congregation dedicated its first church building in 1851; it was on this site. A bell added in the 1850s became a pride of the city. This church hosted the Baptist State Convention five times in the 1850s and 60s. One of the first regular Sunday schools in Texas functioned here by 1864. Blacks in the membership requested and received letters of dismission in 1868, to organize a church of their own. After Sam Houston Normal Institute (now Sam Houston State University) was established in 1879, many of its people came to augment the leadership in this church. The congregation has erected houses of worship in 1891, 1924, and 1954. Throughout its history, it has promoted and financed mission work, and has helped to organize and encourage other congregations. #8450

1229 Avenue J, Huntsville, TX, United States where they worshipped

Texas Historical Marker #08453

Forrest Lodge No. 19, A.F.&A.M.. One of 25 lodges started during the Republic of Texas, Forrest Lodge No. 19, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, was chartered on Jan. 11, 1844. It is the eighth oldest lodge in Texas. Among its early members were Sam Houston and Texas historian Henderson Yoakum. Another outstanding member, William Martin Taylor (1817-1871), is known as "The Father of the Texas Work". He published a handbook called "Taylor's Monitor" which brought uniformity to Texas Masonic ritual. It was approved by the Grand Lodge at a meeting held here in 1858. At least 28 local Masons have attained offices in the Grand Lodge. The upper floor of a store owned by Alexander McDonald, the first worshipful master, served as an early meeting place. A two-story lodge hall on the north side of the square, built in 1850, was destroyed by fire in 1881. It was replaced by a brick building near the corner of University and 11th Street in 1883. The present property was acquired in 1896 and the new structure dedicated in 1909. The Masons have shared their facilities with the Red Cross, the First Baptist Church, and the public schools. Lodge funds have aided distressed members, widows, and orphans; bought war bonds; and supplied scholarships. #8453

1030 12th Street, Huntsville, TX, United States where they member

Texas Historical Marker #08455

Old Gibbs Store. Old Gibbs Store, oldest business in Texas under original ownership and on first site. Established 1841 in Republic of Texas by Thomas Gibbs. Building erected in 1847 after Sandford Saint John Gibbs joined firm. General Sam Houston was steady customer of the partners, who became bankers after lending use of their safe to neighbors. Gibbs National Bank, established 1890, was forerunner of First National Bank, established 1922. #8455

1116 Cedar Stree, Huntsville, TX, United States where they purchased

Texas Historical Marker #08457

Sam Houston. Born March 2, 1793, in Rockbridge County, Va.; son of Samuel and Elizabeth Houston. Moved to Tennessee in 1807 with widowed mother and her family. In 1813 joined U.S. Army under Gen. Andrew Jackson, with whom he formed lifetime friendship and political ties. In Tennessee, taught school, kept a store, served in U.S. Congress, was state governor. In 1829, after his young bride left him, resigned as governor and went westward. Settling in 1833 in Nacogdoches, became a leader in cause of Texas independence from Mexico. Elected March 4, 1836, to command the Army of the Republic, engineered retrograde movement that led to victory of San Jacinto, which won Texas independence. President of the Republic, 1836-1838 and 1841-1844, he was senator after annexation. In 1859 he was elected governor, and served until secession. In 1861 he declined to take oath of office in Confederacy, retiring instead after a quarter-century of service to his state. However, he did not oppose Confederate army enlistment of his young son, Sam Houston, Jr. While the Civil War continued, he died on July 26, 1863, at his home, "Steamboat House," Huntsville. With him was his family, to hear his last words to his wife: "Texas--, Margaret, Texas--". #8457

?, Huntsville, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #08467

Oakwood Cemetery. This cemetery existed as early as 1846. For three graves were placed here that year. Pleasant Gray, Huntsville's founder, deeded in 1847 a 1,600-square foot plot at this site. The original tract has been greatly enlarged by other donations from local citizens. Numerous graves bear the death date 1867, when a yellow-fever epidemic swept the county. Among the many famous persons buried here are General Sam Houston; Henderson King Yoakum, author of the first comprehensive history of Texas; state congressmen; and pioneer families. #8467

?, Huntsville, TX, United States where they interred

Texas Historical Marker #08482

Woodland, Home of Sam Houston. General of the army which won the war for Texas Independence, 1836, and first President of the Republic, 1836-1838, Sam Houston was one of the most controversial and colorful figures in Texas history. In his eventful career, Houston had resided in Nacogdoches, Liberty, Houston, and Austin. He and his wife Margaret (Lea) built this house, "Woodland", in 1847 to provide themselves with a town place. With enthusiasm, he wrote to a friend that the new home was a "bang up place!" and that the climate was "said to be healthy". Houston and his wife lived at Woodland while he was a U.S. Senator, 1846-1859, perhaps the happiest and most prosperous years of his life. Four of their eight children were born here. The house was built in a style common to the South at the time: squared logs covered with hand-hewn, whitewashed boards. The detached kitchen and law office were built of unfinished, squared logs. In 1859 Houston was elected governor but, although opposed to secession, he could not keep Texas from joining the Confederacy in 1861. Deposed from office, he returned to his second Huntsville home, called the "Steamboat House", where he died in 1863. #8482

?, Huntsville, TX, United States where they lived (1847-1861)

Texas Historical Marker #08533

Mabank. Originally part of the George T. Walters Survey, this acreage in the 1840s and '50s belonged to many absentee landowners including Sam Houston. In 1887 John R. Jones, a merchant from nearby Goshen, and his wife Joella platted and developed a town called "Lawn City" (1 mi. NE). Soon a post office was established and the name changed to "Lawndale". When the Texas & New Orleans Railroad bypassed Lawndale in 1900 on its route from Kemp to Athens, it ran through the northern part of the Mason-Eubank Ranch. The owners, Thomas H. Eubank (1859-1952) and rancher-banker G. W. ("Dodge") Mason (1858-1917), set aside one square mile of their holdings for a town. The name "Mabank" was formed by combining the names of the two landowners. Lawndale families and merchants began moving to Mabank. The town grew rapidly, boasting a park, depot, and stock loading pens. There was a gin, post office, cafe, hotel, and several mercantile businesses. Later, church lots were set aside for Baptist, Methodist and Presbyterian congregations. The Baptist church erected a building for a community house and school. The economy of the area depended first on farming and later on ranching. The 1966 development of Cedar Creek Lake strengthened the community. #8533

?, Mabank, TX, United States where they owned

Texas Historical Marker #08580

Site of Freeman Inn. Built by Ira M. Freeman, 1856; way station and hotel for passengers on several stage lines through city. Two-story pine building housed many travelers, among them, Sam Houston. Important visitors, officers stayed here in Civil War. Coaches and teams were kept in Freeman's barns. #8580

?, Navasota, TX, United States where they stayed

Texas Historical Marker #08609

Site of Piedmont Springs Resort. In operation as early as 1850 as health spa and resort because of three nearby sulphur springs (varying in taste from mild to strong). Numerous drinking places and bathhouses allowed guests to move freely about grounds. Grand four-story hotel with 100 rooms, built about 1860, was social center for area, where guests enjoyed billiards, poker, horse races, and Gen. Sam Houston once danced the Minuet. In 1865, hotel became hospital, headquarters for John G. Walker's "Greyhound Division", Confederate Army. Owner closed the building after losing money in panic, 1870s. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1967 #8609

?, Navasota, TX, United States where they visited

Texas Historical Marker #09511

Trammel's Trace. Entered Texas at this point. The 1813 road from St. Louis brought in great numbers of pioneers: Stephen F. Austin, his settlers, Sam Houston, James Bowie, David Crockett and others who died in the Texas Revolution. From here pointed southwest. Crossed the Sulphur at Epperson ferry, going south to Nacogdoches, linking "Southwest Trail" with the King's Highway to Mexico. Surveyed by Nicholas Trammel (born in Nashville, Tenn., 1780; died, LaGrange, Texas, 1852), one of a family of U. S. surveyors and scouts. Mapped many trails, but only this one bears his name. (1965) #9511

?, Texarkana vicinity, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #09547

Columbia. In September 1836 Columbia, now known as West Columbia, became capital of the Republic of Texas. This took place with the removal of the ad interim government here from Velasco. After the election called by ad interim President David G. Burnet, the first permanent government of the Republic went into operation here in Columbia in October. Inaugurated were President Sam Houston and Vice-President Mirabeau B. Lamar. Under their leadership the first duly elected Congress convened and the first Constitution of the Republic was ratified. Citizens of this vicinity served the Republic. Henry Smith of nearby Brazoria prior of this time has been the first Anglo-American governor of Texas, in the 1835-36 Revolutionary provisional government. In President Houston's cabinet he was secretary of the treasury. Stephen F. Austin, colonizer and Father of Texas, was secretary of state; under the heavy demands of that office, his health broke and he died here on December 27, 1836. In April 1837 at the wish of President Houston, the seat of government was moved to more adequate quarters in the city of Houston. (1965) #9547

301 S. 17th St., West Columbia, TX, United States where they inaugurated

Texas Historical Marker #09939

Cherokee Trace. In 1821 near this site, Cherokee Indians blazed a trail from near Nacogdoches, Texas, to their home reservation at White River, Ark. They slashed trees, cleared path, planted "Cherokee" roses, and established camps at springs. Used by Sam Houston, friend of the Cherokees, on his move to Texas; by David Crockett, other soldiers of the Texas Revolution, and thousands of immigrants. After June 1839, when Texas settlers drove the Cherokees out of the state, the Indians departed over this trail; others traveled it for years thereafter. #9939

?, Longview, TX, United States where they travelled

Texas Historical Marker #10174

Sam Houston's 1857 Campaign in Marshall. On May 23, 1857, during his first Texas gubernatorial race, Sam Houston came to Marshall, the hometown of two of his most outspoken critics, Robert Loughery and Louis T. Wigfall, for a much anticipated debate against his opponent Hardin Runnels. Here under an oak tree, in an overwhelmingly secessionist area, the Unionist Houston spoke so eloquently that Runnels, who was scheduled to follow, declined to speak. Though he lost the election, Houston's stirring oratory brought him forty-eight percent of the Harrison County vote. #10174

W. Burleson and N. Franklin St., Marshall, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #10594

John Kirby Allen. Born in Canasareaugh, New York 1810. Came to Texas in 1832. Died in Houston August 18, 1838. John K. Allen was a member of the first Congress of the Republic (1836-1837) from Nacogdoches County. He and his brother, Augustus C. Allen, on August 25, 1836 purchased a league of land from Mrs. T. F. L. Parrott for five thousand dollars, on which on August 29, 1836 they founded the town of Houston named in honor of the hero of San Jacinto. #10594

1217 W Dallas, Houston, TX, United States where they is commemorated

Texas Historical Marker #10664

Site of the First White House of the Republic of Texas. Here dwelt President Sam Houston from November, 1837 to December, 1838, and President Mirabeau B. Lamar, from December, 1838 to October, 1839. #10664

?, Houston, TX, United States where they lived

Texas Historical Marker #10692

Houston City, Republic of Texas. By vote of Congress, Nov. 30, 1836, chosen temporary capital for new Republic of Texas. At the time a small townsite at the head of Buffalo Bayou navigation. Into a "Houston City" of mud, tents, cabins on April 1, 1837, came President Sam Houston and his government. Finding its quarters unfinished, Congress postponed its opening session until May 1. The capitol building was a 2-story plantation style house, with columned porches. It was scene of many important Indian treaties, diplomatic negotiations, legislative functions. As no church yet graced the city, it also was used for religious services. That muddy April saw the city hold its first big social event-- the anniversary celebration of the San Jacinto victory, with parade, reception and ball. On Dec. 5, 1837, some war heroes and other leaders founded in the capital the Texas Philosophical Society, the Republic's first learned organization. In a powdered wig, and dressed to resemble George Washington, President Houston made a 3-hour farewell address, after which Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar was inaugurated his successor on Dec. 10, 1838. In 1839, removed to Austin, the capital returned here, but only briefly, 1842, in Mexican invasion. #10692

?, Houston, TX, United States where they is commemorated and lived

Texas Historical Marker #10882

Jonesboro. (About a half mile NW was 19th century town) One of first ports of entry into Texas for Anglo-Americans. Opened early as 1814; heavily used by 1817. Named for 1819-21 ferry owner Henry Jones (1789-1861). Claimed by both Mexico and the United States, town was 1828-37 county seat of Miller County, Ark. Community had 2,350 people by 1834. At this crossing Sam Houston (1832) and David Crockett (1835) entered Texas. A well-known road led southeastward to other colonies by way of Nacogdoches. In 1836, Clarksville became Red River District's capital. By 1840 Jonesboro had lots its trade and many settlers to other areas. #10882

?, Manchester, TX, United States where they entered Texas

Texas Historical Marker #10890

Near Here at the Old Jonesboro Crossing Sam Houston. Near here at the Old Jonesboro Crossing, Sam Houston, an envoy of President Andrew Jackson first set foot on Texas soil, December 2, 1832. #10890

?, Manchester, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #11302

Cherokee Trace. Near this site the Cherokee Indians blazed an early Texas trail. They wanted a road from their settlements near Nacogdoches to their home reservation on the White River in Arkansas. About 1821 they selected a man known for his uncanny sense of direction. Mounting a horse and dragging buffalo skins behind him, he set a northward course. A group of Indians followed, blazing the trees to mark the trail. Another group cleared away the heavy underbrush and trees. A third group established camping grounds by springs and planted Cherokee roses which still mark the route today. Sam Houston, friend of the Cherokee, travelled it on his first Texas visit. David Crockett and other Texas revolution fighters as well as thousands of settlers from northeastern United States first saw Texas from the road, many establishing homes nearby. The Cherokee remained peaceful as long as friend Sam Houston was President of the Republic. In June 1839 they were ordered from Texas because of raids and intrigues with Mexican agents. A two-day battle ensued on the Neches River where their chief was killed. The tribe retreated, fighting, leaving Texas by the famous trail they made. #11302

?, Gilmer, TX, United States where they travelled

Texas Historical Marker #12178

Sam Houston in San Augustine. Sam Houston (March 2, 1793 - July 26, 1863) left home in 1809 and lived among the Cherokees. After two years he returned to the Anglo world; he opened a school, fought the British under Andrew Jackson, and was governor of Tennessee. After a three-week marriage, Houston left the governorship and returned to the Cherokees; three years later, he came to Texas. Upon his arrival in San Augustine, Sam Houston opened a legal practice on this site. For the next thirty years he used "The Redlands" as a place of business, residence, or refuge. Houston is said to have recuperated from the Battle of San Jacinto in the home of Colonel Phillip Sublett, issuing his report of the battle from San Augustine. Following Houston's term as president of the Republic of Texas, the people of San Augustine elected him to serve them in the Texas House of Representatives during the Fourth and Fifth Congresses. Houston's divorce from Eliza Allen took place in San Augustine in 1837. He married Margaret Lea in 1840; though her health would not permit her to live in San Augustine, she made frequent visits. The early and strong support of the people of "The Redlands" for Sam Houston and Houston's love for them is documented in the history and lore of San Augustine and its people. (1998) #12178

128 E. Columbia, San Augustine, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #12281

Original Site of The Steamboat House. Dr. Rufus W. Bailey, a teacher, minister and attorney educated in New England, came to Huntsville as a language professor at Austin College in 1855. He acquired an eight-acre tract on this site and erected a house which he named "Buena Vista," but which became known as "The Steamboat House" because its unusual design evoked the image of a double-decker steamboat. According to local tradition Bailey gave the house to his son, but the younger Bailey and his wife did not care for the architecture and none of the family ever lived in the house. Dr. Rufus Bailey served as both minister of the Huntsville Presbyterian Church and president of Austin College from 1858 to 1862. In 1862 Bailey rented the house to General Sam Houston, who had been living at his farm in Chambers County since being removed from the Office of Governor of Texas for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. Dr. Bailey died early in 1863, and his son, F. B. Bailey, inherited the house. General Houston died of pneumonia at the Steamboat House on July 26, 1863, and his funeral was held there the following day. Dr. Pleasant W. Kittrell, friend and physician to General Houston, bought the property in 1866. He died of yellow fever in the 1867 epidemic. In 1873 his widow, Mary Frances Goree Kittrell, traded the house to her brother, Major Thomas J. Goree, a local attorney and Confederate veteran, who made extensive renovations to give the house a Victorian appearance. The house was moved one-half mile from this site in 1927; it fell into disrepair. In 1936 it was moved to the Sam Houston Memorial Museum grounds and was presented to the state on March 2, Texas Independence Day. (2000) #12281

?, Huntsville, TX, United States where they lived

Texas Historical Marker #12284

Independence. Local legend tells of Dr. Asa Hoxey who, celebrating the Texas Declaration of Independence in 1836, moved to change the name of Coles settlement to Independence. Actual county records show an 1835 origin for the town of Independence, with C. Baker, J. G. W. Pierson, A. F. Burchard, and R. Stevenson, proprietors. The still-strong Independence Baptist Church was established in 1839 with Pastor T. W. Cox. Local resident Sam Houston was baptized in Little Rocky Creek in 1854. The wealthiest town in Texas by 1845, Independence won the bid for Baylor University, newly chartered by the Republic of Texas. J. B. Root became its first U. S. Postmaster in 1846. By the 1850s Independence had a hotel, jail, stagecoach depot, Masonic lodge, cemetery, and small commercial district. Both the city leaders and Baylor administrators refused to grant right-of-way to the Santa Fe Railroad. By the 1880s, trade was going to competing towns and Independence began to decline. Baylor University moved its schools to Waco and Belton in 1886. By the 1990s, Independence was a rural community with a population of 140. Remaining attractions include the Baptist church and numerous historical sites in the area. (1997) #12284

?, Independence, TX, United States where they lived

Texas Historical Marker #12307

San Gabriel Park. The land and springs around this site made it a favored camping site for local Indian tribes for centuries before the Spanish discovered it. Raids, drought and conflict led the Spanish to abandon the area in 1756. The Mexican State of Coahuila and Texas granted a colonization contract to Robert Leftwich in 1825. Conflicting contracts were granted to Stephen F. Austin and Sterling C. Robertson. George W. Glasscock, Sr. (1810-1868) purchased the land while speculating for Thomas B. Huling and Company. In 1839 Glasscock received two headrights including this land as part of his share of assets when the company dissolved. The site had become a popular gathering place for settlers when Sam Houston spoke here in 1859. It became known as "The Fairgrounds." Large annual fairs, reunions and religious revivals drew crowds from surrounding areas. The county's first public hanging took place here in 1886. Williamson County Old Settlers' Association, formed in 1904, used the area for annual gatherings, eventually leasing 33 acres and building reunion structures. Helen Glasscock, the widow of George Glasscock, Jr., sold the site to I. M. Williams in 1912. A devastating flood in 1921 swept away the fairgrounds. Georgetown citizens requested that the city buy the site from the Williams family and name it San Gabriel Park in 1933. Under the direction of R. E. Ward, the city improved the park in the 1930s and 1940s. A river wall, low water crossing, large building and rest rooms were erected with funding and labor from the Federal Works Progress Administration. Rodeo pens, sports fields and further land acquisitions continue to ensure that the park provides recreation and shelter for area citizens. (1999) #12307

?, Georgetown, TX, United States where they spoke

Texas Historical Marker #12568

Chief Bowles' Last Homesite. In 1836, General Sam Houston negotiated a treaty with the Cherokees in Texas allowing possession of the lands they occupied in east Texas. The leading figure among the Cherokees at that time was Duwali (also known as Bowl, Chief Bowles and Bold Hunter). After the Texas Revolution, the Senate of the Republic of Texas declared the treaty invalid. Near this site in 1839, Chief Bowles learned of Texas president Mirabeau B. Lamar's orders to remove the Cherokee from Texas. Bowl mobilized his people to resist the expulsion, but they were defeated and the chief was killed at the Battle of the Neches on July 16, 1839, in what is now Van Zandt County. (2001) #12568

?, Alto, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #12666

Sour Lake C.S.A.. Early-day health resort, with baths that attracted such Texans as Gen. Sam Houston. The healing waters had been used for years by the Indians. One spring's water, with high sulphuric acid content, primed telegraph batteries during the Civil War. This was of vital importance, for at best telegraph service was limited. Started in 1854, the 1861-65 system went only from Shreveport to Marshall to Houston, and Houston to Galveston to Orange. A 20-word telegram sent from Shreveport to Houston in February 1865 cost $36. #12666

?, Sour Lake, TX, United States where they visited

Texas Historical Marker #13054

Grapevine Springs Park. The Grapeving Springs, which flow into the Elm Fork of the Trinity River, have attracted visitors for more than 2,000 years. In 1843, Republic of Texas President Sam Houston camped here during treaty negotiations with Native Americans. The treaty was later signed at Bird's Fort. In 1936, Dallas County accepted the donation of Houston's campsite as park land, and the federal Works Progress Administration (WPA) built rock walls, picnic facilities, footbridges and other features. During World War II, ownership reverted to prior owners. The Baptist Foundation of Texas later obtained the land and donated it to the county in 1991. Today, the City of Coppell maintains it, and efforts to restore WPA features are ongoing. (2005) #13054

700 S Park Rd, Coppell, TX, United States where they stayed

Texas Historical Marker #13932

Governor's Mansion, The. Official residence of the Governor of Texas. By law, each chief executive must live here during his term of office. Before the erection of this building in 1855-1856, the only official executive home had been the rough, two-story frame "President's House" at present Seventh and San Jacinto streets. Within these walls, many decisions of statewide import have taken place. Here in 1861, Gov. Sam Houston decided not to support the Confederacy. Also, like numerous 19th-century houses, the mansion acquired a ghost story after the nephew of Gov. Pendleton Murrah (1863-1865) committed suicide here. Built some thirty years before the pink granite capitol, this structure was first occupied by Gov. Elisha M. Pease, who selected the site and design. Pioneer architect-contractor Abner Cook supervised the construction of the stately residence, in Greek Revival style. Austin-made bricks were used, and huge pine logs were hauled from Bastrop, then adzed to form the six massive pillars with Ionic capitals. Distinguished visitors have included U.S. Presidents and heads of state from other countries. More than perhaps any other residence in Texas, the Governor's Mansion is a repository of Texas history. (1969) (Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1962) #13932

1010 Colorado, Austin, TX, United States where they was

Texas Historical Marker #15008

Home of Sam Houston. Site of the Home of General Sam Houston, Constructed in About 1860, Occupied by Him as a Residence During a Part of 1861 and a Part of 1862 #15008

?, Baytown, TX, United States where they lived

Texas Historical Marker #15660

Julia Dickinson Allen. Resident of Bastrop County, 1857-1863. Wife of Col. Robert Thomas Pritchard Allen (1812-1888), graduate of West Point, Civil engineer, mathematics professor, Methodist preacher, U. S. mail agent and co-publisher "Pacific News," San Francisco, 1849-1850; founder and commandant of Kentucky Military Institute and of Bastrop Military Institute. Their family visitors from time to time in Bastrop included Governor Sam Houston, whose son, Sam Junior, was a B.M.I. cadet. Mrs. Allen, during the Civil War, was an angel of mercy to prisoners at Camp Ford, Tyler, where her husband, at that time colonel of the 17th Texas Infantry, was commandant, 1863-1864. She nursed the ill, consoled the homesick, cheered the despondent, attended church services with the prisoners; she was so much esteemed and loved that one of the Federals wrote a poem in her honor. After the war, returned with her husband to state of Kentucky. There Col. Allen resumed operation of Kentucky Military Institute. His brother-in-law, Jay Cooke, of Philadelphia, who had won international fame as the United States' financier for the Civil War, backed Allen and K. M. I. until his 1873 business failure known as the Jay Cooke Money Panic. (1965) #15660

1404 Wilson St., Bastrop, TX, United States where they visited

Texas Historical Marker #15904

Sam Houston's First Home in Texas. #15904

202 E. Pillar Street, Nacogdoches, TX, United States where they lived

Texas Historical Marker #16089

Site of Council Hill. Site of Council Hill, home of Vernon B. Lea, brother of Mrs. Sam Houston. Here General Houston frequently met with delegations of Alabama Indians. #16089

?, Coldspring, TX, United States where they frequently met with delegations of Alabama Indians

Sam Houston was baptized here (40 yards west) on Nov 19 1854 by Dr R. C. Burleson pastor of the Independenc Baptist Church and President of Baylor University

, Independence, TX, United States where they was baptised (1854)