International Historic Civil And Mechanical Engineering Landmark Liverpool and Manchester Railway Developments in transportation History. It was the first public railway for the scheduled transportation of passengers and freight between remote cities. A team led by George Stephenson (1781-1848) designed the 35-mile, double-tracked line. Overcoming numerous engineering challenges, including Olive Mount, The Sankey Valley and Chat Moss, the railway established the historic reputations of many engineers assigned to its various sections. The first ever locomotive trials at rainhill during 6-14 october 1829 pitted the horse treadmill cycloped against four steam locomotives. Novelty, Perseverance, Rocket, and Sans Pareil. Rocket, designed and built by Robert Stephenson (1803-1859), outperformed the others and proved that locomotive propulsion was practical. Still operating on its original alignment with many original structures, this railway established the basic format for almost all subsequent railways and rolling stock world-wide.