Napoleon Bonaparte

Died aged 51

Napoleon Bonaparte (born Napoleone Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821), later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military commander and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. He was the de facto leader of the French Republic as First Consul from 1799 to 1804, then Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814 and again in 1815. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy endures to this day, as a highly celebrated and controversial leader. He initiated many liberal reforms that have persisted in society, and is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history, but between three and six million civilians and soldiers perished in what became known as the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon was born on the island of Corsica, not long after its annexation by France, to a native family descending from minor Italian nobility. He supported the French Revolution in 1789 while serving in the French army, and tried to spread its ideals to his native Corsica. He rose rapidly in the Army after he saved the governing French Directory by firing on royalist insurgents. In 1796, he began a military campaign against the Austrians and their Italian allies, scoring decisive victories and becoming a national hero. Two years later, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power. He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic. Differences with the United Kingdom meant France faced the War of the Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon shattered this coalition with victories in the Ulm campaign, and at the Battle of Austerlitz, which led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him. Napoleon defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grande Armée into Eastern Europe, and defeated the Russians in June 1807 at Friedland, forcing the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to accept the Treaties of Tilsit. Two years later, the Austrians challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram. Hoping to extend the Continental System, his embargo against Britain, Napoleon invaded the Iberian Peninsula and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted in the Peninsular War, culminating in defeat for Napoleon's marshals. Napoleon launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the catastrophic retreat of Napoleon's Grande Armée. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, resulting in a large coalition army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig. The coalition invaded France and captured Paris, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April 1814. He was exiled to the island of Elba, between Corsica and Italy. In France, the Bourbons were restored to power. Napoleon escaped in February 1815 and took control of France. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. The British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the Atlantic, where he died in 1821 at the age of 51. Napoleon had an extensive impact on the modern world, bringing liberal reforms to the lands he conquered, especially the regions of the Low Countries, Switzerland and parts of modern Italy and Germany. He implemented many liberal policies in France and Western Europe.

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Commemorated on 8 plaques

Du 22 Janvier au 3 Mars 1793 Napoleon Bonaparte Lieutenant-Colonel au 2me bataillon des volontaires Corses Logea dans cette maison qui avait appartenu a ses ancetres Jusqu en Mai 1721

English translation: From 22 January to 3 March 1793 Napoleon Bonaparte Lieutenant-Colonel to the 2nd Battalion of the volunteers Corses Logea in this house that had belonged to his ancestors Until May 1721 [AWS Translate]

Rue des Deux Empereurs, Bonifacio, Corsica, France where they lived (1793)

Mairie de l'ancien 2ème arrondissement. Où fut célébré le 9 mars 1796 le mariage du général Bonaparte et de Joséphine de Beauharnais.

English translation: Town hall of the former 2nd district. On 9 March 1796 General Bonaparte and Joséphine de Beauharnais were married. [AWS Translate]

3 rue d'Antin, Paris, France where they is commemorated

1796-1996 Commémoration du mariage de Napoléon Bonaparte et Joséphine de Beauharnais. 9 Mars 1996 Fondation Napoléon

English translation: 1796-1996 Commemoration of the marriage of Napoleon Bonaparte and Josephine de Beauharnais. 9 March 1996 Napoleon Foundation [AWS Translate]

3 rue d'Antin, Paris, France where they is commemorated

Hôtel de Mondragon. Ouverte en 1718 à l'emplacement du bastien Vendôme de l'enceinte de Louis XIII, la rue d'Antin est vite lotie et bord/eee de belles demeures. La plus prestigieuse, construite en 1720, est habitée par Etienne Bourgeois de Boynes, trésorier de la Banque de Law. En 1754, cet hôtel est acheté par Duval de l'Epinoy, qui l'offre à sa fille, Marquise de Mondragon. Confisqué en 1793, l'hôtel héberge de 1795 à 1833 la mairie du deuxième arrondissement. Napoléon Bonaparte y épouse Joséphine de Beauharnais le 9 mars 1796. En 1869, la Banque de Paris, nouvellement créée, s'installe dans l'immeuble. Devenue en 1871 la Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas, c'est aujourd'hui Paribas.

English translation: Hôtel de Mondragon. Opened in 1718 to the site of the bastien Vendôme of the Louis XIII precinct, the Rue d'Antin was quickly subdivided and bordered by beautiful mansions. The most prestigious, built in 1720, was inhabited by Etienne Bourgeois de Boynes, Treasurer of the Bank of Law. In 1754, this hotel was bought by Duval de l'Epinoy, who offered it to his daughter, Marquise de Mondragon. Confiscated in 1793, the house held from 1795 to 1833 the town hall of the second arrondissement. Napoleon Bonaparte married Joséphine de Beauharnais here on March 9, 1796. In 1869, the newly created Banque de Paris moved into the building. Becoming in 1871 la Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas, it is today Paribas.

3 rue d'Antin, Paris, France where they married (1796)

Café Procope. Ici Procopio dei Coltelli fonda en 1686 le plus ancien café du monde et le plus célèbre centre de la vie littéraire et philosophique au 18e et au 19e siècles. Il fut fréquenté par La Fontaine, Voltaire, les Encyclopédistes, Benjamin Franklin, Danton, Marat, Robespierre, Napoléon Bonaparte, Balzac, Victor Hugo, Gambetta, Verlaine et Anatole France.

English translation: Café Procope. Here Procopio dei Coltelli founded in 1686 the oldest café in the world and the most famous center of philosophical and literary life in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was visited by La Fontaine, Voltaire, Les Encyclopédistes, Benjamin Franklin, Danton, Marat, Robespierre, Napoléon Bonaparte, Balzac, Victor Hugo, Gambetta, Verlaine and Anatole France.

13 rue de l'Ancienne Comédie, Paris, France where they visited

1815-2015 Napoleon, Emperor of the French, was detained on HMS Bellerophon in Plymouth Sound from 26 July to August 1815. Large crowds came to catch a glimpse of him. These two blocks of granite are from Dartmoor Prison, where thousands of French prisoners were held captive during the Napoleonic Wars. Embedded, is a volcanic stone from Longwood House in St Helena where Napoleon died on 5th May 1821.The stones stand here to celebrate 200 years of peace between the United Kingdom and France. May our heats be open to friendship and our arms reach across the sea to unite our two nations.

Plymouth Hoe, Plymouth, United Kingdom where they was detained (1815)



Rue Colonel Chambonnet, Lyon, France where they laid the stone (1800)

Ici s'élevait le château puissant dans lequel deux jours avant Waterloo, Napoléon 1er, empereur des Français, établit son quartier général la nuit du 15 Juin 1815.

English translation: Here stood the powerful castle in which two days before Waterloo, Napoleon 1st, emperor of the French, established his headquarters on the night of June 15, 1815. [AWS Translate]

Rue de Charleville, Charleroi, Belgium where they had its headquarters (1815)