John Adams

Died aged c. 91

John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American lawyer, author, statesman, and diplomat. He served as the second President of the United States (1797–1801) and the first Vice President (1789–97) and, as a Founding Father, he was a leader of American independence from Great Britain. Adams was a political theorist in the Age of Enlightenment who promoted republicanism and a strong central government. His innovative ideas were frequently published. He was also a dedicated diarist and correspondent, particularly with his wife and key advisor Abigail. He collaborated with his cousin, revolutionary leader Samuel Adams, but he established his own prominence prior to the American Revolution. After the Boston Massacre, he provided a successful (though unpopular) legal defense of the accused British soldiers, in the face of severe local anti-British sentiment and driven by his devotion to the right to counsel and the "protect[ion] of innocence". Adams was a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress, where he played a leading role in persuading Congress to declare independence. He assisted Thomas Jefferson in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and was its foremost advocate in the Congress. As a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the eventual peace treaty with Great Britain, and acquired vital governmental loans from Amsterdam bankers. Adams was the primary author of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780 which influenced American political theory, as did his earlier Thoughts on Government (1776). Adams' credentials as a revolutionary secured for him two terms as President George Washington's vice president (1789 to 1797) and also his own election in 1796 as the second president. In his single term as president, he encountered fierce criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans, as well as the dominant faction in his own Federalist Party, led by his rival Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts, and built up the army and navy in the face of an undeclared naval "Quasi-War" with France. The major accomplishment of his presidency was a peaceful resolution of the conflict in the face of Hamilton's opposition. Due to his strong posture on defense, Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". He was the first U.S. president to reside in the executive mansion, now known as the White House. In 1800, Adams lost re-election to Thomas Jefferson and retired to Massachusetts. He eventually resumed his friendship with Jefferson upon the latter's own retirement by initiating a correspondence which lasted fourteen years. He and his wife established a family of politicians, diplomats, and historians now referred to as the Adams political family. Adams was the father of John Quincy Adams, the sixth President of the United States. He died on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. Modern historians in the aggregate have favorably ranked his administration.

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Family tree

Commemorated on 9 plaques

In this house lived John Adams First American Minister to Great Britain, May 1785 to March 1788 afterwards Second President of the United States. From here his daughter Abigail was married to Colonel William Stephens-Smith, First Secretary of the Legation and an Officer in the Revolutionary Army on Washington's staff. John Adams and Abigail, his wife through character and personality, did much to create understanding between the two English-speaking countries. In their memory this tablet is placed by the Colonial Dames of America 1933.

9 Grosvenor Square, London, United Kingdom where they lived

In this building sat the first Senate and the first House of Representatives of the United States of America. Herein George Washington was inaugurated President March 4, 1793 and closed his official career when herein, also John Adams was inaugurated the second President of the United States March 4, 1797.

Congress Hall, Philadelphia, PA, United States where they was inaugurated the second President of the United States (1797)

Hier woonde van 1781-1782 John Adams 1st US Ambassador to The Netherlands, 2nd President of the United States of America

????, Amsterdam, Netherlands where they lived (1781-1782)

En ce bâtiment Jadis Hôtel d'York le 3 septembre 1783 David Hartley, au nom du Roi d'Angleterre, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams, au nom des Etats-Unis d'Amérique, ont signé le Traité Définitif de Paix reconnaissant l'indépendence des Etats-Unis.

English translation: In this building formerly York Hotel on September 3, 1783 David Hartley, on behalf of the King of England, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams, on behalf of the United States of America, signed the Final Treaty of Peace recognizing the independence of the United States. [AWS Translate]

56 rue Jacob, Paris, France where they signed the Definitive Treaty of Peace recognizing the independence of the United States (1783)

Was proclaimed from York by the Continental Congress on November 1, 1777 to be celebrated on Thursday, December 18. It was written by John Adams of Massachusetts, "The Father of the Revolution," who advocated for the first time "one day of public thanksgiving" for all of the States after the Battle of Saratoga, "that good people may express the grateful feelings of their heart".

21 E. Market St, York, PA, United States where they was (1777)

Adams County. Formed January 22, 1800 out of York County. The name honors President John Adams. Important center of fruit growing industry. County seat of Gettysburg, incorporated 1806, was site in 1863 of key Civil War battle and President Lincoln's great address.

Old Courthouse, Baltimore & W. Middle Sts. (Bus. 15 & PA 116), Gettysburg, PA, United States where they is commemorated

National Funeral for President Washington. George Washington died on December 14, 1799. Congress set Dec. 26 as a day of formal mourning in Philadelphia, the nation's capital from 1790 to 1800. The national funeral service was in Zion Lutheran Church--located at this site, 1766-1870--and among those attending was President John Adams. In his funeral oration, Congressman Henry Lee spoke the famous tribute: "First in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen."

SE corner, N 4th & Cherry Streets, Philadelphia, PA, United States where they was

On 8th April 1786 John Adams and Thomas Jefferson - the second and third Presidents of the United States of America - dined in the old Hop Pole Inn, which is the building to the left of this hotel, during their 8-day tour of English gardens and Civil War battle sites. Later, on Fort Royal Hill, Adams demanded of local people: "do Englishmen so soon forget the ground where liberty was fought for? All England should come in pilgrimage to this hill once a year."

Whitehouse Hotel, Worcester, United Kingdom where they dined (1786)

'The Liberty Oak' In April 1786 near this spot, His Excellency John Adams, United States Ambassador to the Court of St James, accompanied by His Excellency Thomas Jefferson, Ambassador to the Court of Versailles, referring to the Battle of Worcester passionately exclaimed in front of a growing crowd: "And do Englishmen so soon forget the ground where liberty was fought for? Tell your neighbours and your children that this is holy ground, much holier than that on which your churches stand. All England should come in pilgramage to this hill once a year." This Virginian Oak Tree was planted by Rear Admiral Ronald H. Henderson, Defence Attaché to the Embassy of the United States of America. October 23rd 2009 This Oak Tree & Memorial Plaque is the gift of Richardsons Capital L.L.P.

Fort Royal Park, Worcester, United Kingdom where they was near (1786)