King Henry VIII of England

King of England (1509-1547)

Died aged c. 56

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was the first English King of Ireland, and continued the nominal claim by English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is known for his consequential role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church, besides his six marriages and many extramarital affairs, as well as his effort to obtain an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which led to conflict with the Pope. His disagreements with the Pope led Henry to separate the Church of England from papal authority, with himself as king and as the Supreme Head of the Church of England; the disputes also led to the Dissolution of the Monasteries. His principal dispute was with papal authority rather than with doctrinal matters, and he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings despite his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry oversaw the legal union of England and Wales with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. He is also well known for a long personal rivalry with both Francis I of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, with whom he frequently warred. Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the sovereign's supremacy over the Church of England, thus initiating the English Reformation, he greatly expanded royal power. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, and those accused were often executed without a formal trial, by means of bills of attainder. He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. People such as Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich, and Thomas Cranmer figured prominently in Henry's administration. He was an extravagant spender and used the proceeds from the Dissolution of the Monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament to convert money into royal revenue that was formerly paid to Rome. Despite the influx of money from these sources, Henry was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance as well as his numerous costly continental wars. His contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive, educated, and accomplished king, and he has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne". Besides ruling with considerable power, he was also an author and composer. His desire to provide England with a male heir stemmed partly from personal vanity and partly from his belief that a daughter would be unable to consolidate Tudor power and maintain the fragile peace that existed following the Wars of the Roses. This led to the two things for which Henry is most remembered: his six marriages and his break with the Pope (who would not allow an annulment of Henry's first marriage). As he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king. He was succeeded by his son Edward VI.

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Family tree

Commemorated on 12 plaques

Here stood the Palace of Bridewell built by Henry VIII in 1523 and granted by Edward VI in 1553 to the City of London to house Bridewell Royal Hospital founded by Royal Charter in the same year. The present building was erected in 1802 and in 1862 the court room of the Bridewell Royal Hospital was incorporated therein

14 New Bridge Street, London, United Kingdom where they built

The site of Tyburn Manor House c. 1250 - 1791 Used by Henry VIII and Elizabeth I as a hunting lodge

Marylebone High Street, London, United Kingdom where they used as a hunting lodge

Brooke House (King’s Place) Stood on this site From late 15th century - 1955. Owned by Henry VIII, 1535-47. Fulke Greville (Lord Brooke) Poet and courtier lived here 1609-1628.

Brooke House Sixth Form College, Kenninghall Road, Hackney, E5 9BP, London, United Kingdom where they owned

The King's Manor. A house was built on this site c.1270 as a Residence for the Abbot of St. Mary's Abbey but was substantially rebuilt in the late 15th century. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539 it became, until 1641, the Headquarters of the Council of the North and the Residence of its Presidents who added to the buildings. Henry VIII, Charles I and James I stayed there. Since 1963 it has been occupied by the University of York.

Exhibition Square, York, United Kingdom where they stayed

Royal Arms The above coat of arms of Henry VIII was mounted on the Town's East Gate in 1541, reflecting the change from Bishop's to King's Lynn in 1537. Since the gate's demolition in 1800 the arms have had various homes until erection here, over the entrance, in 1982.

College Lane, King's Lynn, United Kingdom where they was

King Henry VIII 1491-1547 Close to this site stood the King's Manor House. Part of its boundary wall adjoins Cheyne Studio

23 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, SW3, London, United Kingdom where they lived near

Original features of the Red Lion Inn dating back to the 15th Century are revealed inside. Both Henry V & Henry VIII are believed to have stayed here.

Red Lion Inn, High Street, Sittingbourne, United Kingdom where they stayed

King Henry VIII’s Manor House stood here until 1753 when it was demolished after the death of its last occupant, Sir Hans Sloane. Nos. 19 to 26 Cheyne Walk were built on its site in 1759-65. The old manor house garden still lies beyond the end wall of Cheyne Mews and contains some mulberry trees said to have been planted by Queen Elizabeth I.

23 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, SW3, London, United Kingdom where they lived

This building was erected by the famous clothmaker John Winchcombe, known as "Jack of Newbury" in the early 15th century and here he entertained Henry VIII and his queen Catherine of Aragon and Cardinal Wolsey shortly before his death in 1519. It was due to gifts from John Winchcombe and his son that the greater part of the present parish church of Newbury was built between 1500 and 1532.

24 Northbrook Street, Newbury, United Kingdom where they was entertained (1519)

York Gate About the time of Henry VIII a small wooden pier appears to have been built here. For the safety of the fishing craft, probably by the Coleman family, who fortified the gate or way leading down to the seashore by the arched portal. Defended by a portcullis and strong gates, to prevent the inhabitants from being plundered by the sudden incursions of privateers. These gates have for many years been gone, and as the stonework was fast decaying, it was repaired and beautified by Lord Henniker. When Sir John Henniker, above the arch is the following inscription. York Gate July 17 1811

Harbour Street, Broadstairs, United Kingdom where they was

On this site stood Brooke House (King's Place) Owned by Henry VIII 1535-47 William Herbert Earl of Pembroke Edward de Vere poet & playwright 1597-1609

Kenninghall Road, London, United Kingdom where they was

The Charter Tower Henry VIII (1491-1547) gave the town its first Royal Charter in 1539. The 'charter Tower' is a remnant of the second Bury, built by Richard Combe in the late 16th century.

Queensway, Hemel Hempstead, United Kingdom where they was