King Henry VIII of England

Duke of Cornwall (1502-1509), Prince of Wales (1502-1509), and King of England (1509-1547)

Died aged 55

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for his six marriages, and for his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) annulled. His disagreement with Pope Clement VII about such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved convents and monasteries, for which he was excommunicated by the pope. Henry is also known as "the father of the Royal Navy" as he invested heavily in the navy and increased its size from a few to more than 50 ships, and established the Navy Board. Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings in opposition to papal supremacy. He also greatly expanded royal power during his reign. He frequently used charges of treason and heresy to quell dissent, and those accused were often executed without a formal trial by means of bills of attainder. He achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich and Thomas Cranmer all figured prominently in his administration. Henry was an extravagant spender, using the proceeds from the dissolution of the monasteries and acts of the Reformation Parliament. He also converted the money that was formerly paid to Rome into royal revenue. Despite the money from these sources, he was continually on the verge of financial ruin due to his personal extravagance, as well as his numerous costly and largely unsuccessful wars, particularly with King Francis I of France, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, King James V of Scotland and the Scottish regency under the Earl of Arran and Mary of Guise. At home, he oversaw the annexure of Wales to England with the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 and was the first English monarch to rule as King of Ireland following the Crown of Ireland Act 1542. Henry's contemporaries considered him to be an attractive, educated and accomplished king. He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne" and his reign has been described as the "most important" in English history. He was an author and composer. As he aged, he became severely overweight and his health suffered. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, paranoid and tyrannical monarch. He was succeeded by his son Edward VI.

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Family tree

Commemorated on 13 plaques

Here stood the Palace of Bridewell built by Henry VIII in 1523 and granted by Edward VI in 1553 to the City of London to house Bridewell Royal Hospital founded by Royal Charter in the same year. The present building was erected in 1802 and in 1862 the court room of the Bridewell Royal Hospital was incorporated therein

14 New Bridge Street, London, United Kingdom where they built

The site of Tyburn Manor House c. 1250 - 1791 Used by Henry VIII and Elizabeth I as a hunting lodge

Marylebone High Street, London, United Kingdom where they used as a hunting lodge

Brooke House (King’s Place) Stood on this site From late 15th century - 1955. Owned by Henry VIII, 1535-47. Fulke Greville (Lord Brooke) Poet and courtier lived here 1609-1628.

Brooke House Sixth Form College, Kenninghall Road, Hackney, London, United Kingdom where they owned

The King's Manor. A house was built on this site c.1270 as a Residence for the Abbot of St. Mary's Abbey but was substantially rebuilt in the late 15th century. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539 it became, until 1641, the Headquarters of the Council of the North and the Residence of its Presidents who added to the buildings. Henry VIII, Charles I and James I stayed there. Since 1963 it has been occupied by the University of York.

Exhibition Square, York, United Kingdom where they stayed

Royal Arms The above coat of arms of Henry VIII was mounted on the Town's East Gate in 1541, reflecting the change from Bishop's to King's Lynn in 1537. Since the gate's demolition in 1800 the arms have had various homes until erection here, over the entrance, in 1982.

College Lane, King's Lynn, United Kingdom where they was

King Henry VIII 1491-1547 Close to this site stood the King's Manor House. Part of its boundary wall adjoins Cheyne Studio

23 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, SW3, London, United Kingdom where they lived near

Original features of the Red Lion Inn dating back to the 15th Century are revealed inside. Both Henry V & Henry VIII are believed to have stayed here.

Red Lion Inn, High Street, Sittingbourne, United Kingdom where they stayed

King Henry VIII’s Manor House stood here until 1753 when it was demolished after the death of its last occupant, Sir Hans Sloane. Nos. 19 to 26 Cheyne Walk were built on its site in 1759-65. The old manor house garden still lies beyond the end wall of Cheyne Mews and contains some mulberry trees said to have been planted by Queen Elizabeth I.

23 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, SW3, London, United Kingdom where they lived

York Gate About the time of Henry VIII a small wooden pier appears to have been built here. For the safety of the fishing craft, probably by the Coleman family, who fortified the gate or way leading down to the seashore by the arched portal. Defended by a portcullis and strong gates, to prevent the inhabitants from being plundered by the sudden incursions of privateers. These gates have for many years been gone, and as the stonework was fast decaying, it was repaired and beautified by Lord Henniker. When Sir John Henniker, above the arch is the following inscription. York Gate July 17 1811

Harbour Street, Broadstairs, United Kingdom where they was

On this site stood Brooke House (King's Place) Owned by Henry VIII 1535-47 William Herbert Earl of Pembroke Edward de Vere poet & playwright 1597-1609

BSix Sixth Form College, Kenninghall Road, Lower Clapton, Hackney, London, United Kingdom where they was

The Charter Tower Henry VIII (1491-1547) gave the town its first Royal Charter in 1539. The 'charter Tower' is a remnant of the second Bury, built by Richard Combe in the late 16th century.

Queensway, Hemel Hempstead, United Kingdom where they was

St John Street Until 1840 and the creation of Priory Road, the main entry to Wells from Glastonbury was via Southover and St John Street, named after the Priory of the Hospital of St John the Baptist, founded c1220 by Bishop Jocelyn and his brother Bishop Hugh of Lincoln. The Priory was a religious community dedicated to worship, nursing the sick, and helping the poor and the disabled. It comprised the Prior and ten Brothers. The Priory was dissolved by Henry VIII in 1539, but the main Priory buildings survived until 1859, being then demolished and replaced by the Central School, whose buildings still exist but are now converted into dwellings. The adjacent house, called The Priory, was probably the Prior's lodging, and contains significant mediaeval remains.

1 Priory Road, Wells, United Kingdom where they was

Hyde Park The largest of London Parks extending to over 340 acres. In 1536 Henry VIII appropriated the monastic property of Ebury, Neate and Hyde and retained Hyde as a hunting ground. At the beginning of the seventeenth century the park was opened to the public. It soon became fashionable and remained a favourite place for Royalty to ride. The nineteenth century saw Hyde Park reach its peak as a place for society to parade. Hyde Park has been the setting for military encampments, duels, celebrations, firework displays and most notably, the Great Exhibition of 1851 in the Crystal Palace.

Hyde Park Corner, London, United Kingdom where they was